Practical 3

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pandaglasses
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250345
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Practical 3
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2013-12-04 21:19:25
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anatomy
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Bio 161a
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    • 1. Xiphihumeralis
    • Origin: Median raphe 
    • Insertion:Along the ventral border of the humerus
    • Action: draws the forelimb toward the midline
    • 2. Pectoralis Minor
    • Origin: From the six sternebrae and sometimes the xiphoid process
    • Insertion: Ventral border of the humerus
    • Action:Draws the forelimb toward the midline
    • 3. Pectoantebranchialis
    • Origin: Manubrium of the sternum
    • Insertion: Flat tendon into the superficial fascia of the antebrachium above the elbow
    • Action: Draws the forelimb toward the midline
    • 4. Pectoralis Major
    • Origin: Cranial half of the sternum and midventral raphe
    • Insertion: Proximal two-thirds of the shaft of the humerus
    • Action: Draws the forelimb toward the midline and turns the manus forward
    • 5. Clavotrapezius
    • Origin: Lamboidla ridge, middorsal raphe over spine of the axis
    • Insertion: Clavicle and raphe between the clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
    • Action: Protracts the humerus
    • 6. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Origin: Neural spines of the 4th or 5th thoracic to the 6th lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: Medial surface f humerus at the proximal end
    • Action:  Pulls forelimb dorsocaudally
    • 7. Clavobrachialis
    • Origin: Clavicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
    • Insertion: the medial surface of the ulna distal
    • Action: Flexes the forearm
    • 8. External Oblique
    • Origin: Lumbodorsal fascia and the last 9 or 10 ribs
    • Insertion:  Median raphe of distal portion of sternum and linea alba from sternum to pubis
    • Action: Compresses the abdominal region
    • 9. Internal Oblique
    • Origin: Lumbodorssal fascia and dorsal iliac border
    • Insertion: Linea alba and transversus abdominis
    • Action:  Compresses the abdominal region
    • 10. Trasversus abdominis 
    • Origin: From the costal cartilages of the posterior ribs,transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and ventral border of the ilium
    • Insertion: Linea alba in common with the two obliques
    • Action: Compresses the abdomen
    • 12. Rectus abdominis
    • Origin: Pubis
    • Insertion: 1st and 2nd costal cartilage and proximal end of sternum
    • Action: Compresses the abdominal region, pulls sternum and ribs caudally, causing flexion of the trunk
    • 13. Clavotrapezius
    • Origin: Lambdoidal ridge, middorsal raphe over spine of the axis
    • Insertion: Claicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
    • Action: Protracts the humerus
    • 14. Levator Scapulae Ventralis
    • Origin: By 2 heads from the ventral surface of the transverse process of the atlas and from the basioccipital 
    • Insertion: Ventral border of the metacromion of the scapula and into the infraspinous fossa (2 heads unite)
    • Action: Pulls scapula cranially
    • 15. Acromiotrapezius
    • Origin: Middorsal line from the spine of the axis to the spinous process of the fourth thoracic vertebra
    • Insertion: Metacromion process and spine of the scapula
    • Action:  Adduct and stabilize the position of the scapulae
    • 16. Spinodeltoid
    • Origin: spine of the scapula
    • Insertion:  Deltoid ridge of the humerus
    • Action: retracts the humerus and rotates it outward
    • 17. Spinotrapezius
    • Origin:  Spinous process of most of the thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion: Fascia of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle on either side of the spine
    • Action:  Pulls the scapula dorsally and caudally
    • 18. Acromiodeltoid
    • Origin: Acromion of the scapula
    • Insertion: Surface of the spinodeltoid muscle
    • Action: Retracts the humerus and rotates it laterally
    • 19. Clavobrachialis
    • Origin: Clavicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavodeltoid
    • Insertion: medial surface of the ulna distal
    • Action: Flexes the forearm
    • 20. Latissimus dorsi
    • Origin: Neural spines of the 4th or 5th thoracic to the 6th lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: Medial surface of humerus at the proximal end
    • Action: Pulls forelimb dorsocaudally
    • 21. Erector spinae group
    • Origin: Ilium, posterior vertebrae
    • Insertion: Thoracic and cervical vertebrae, ribs
    • Action: dorsoflex back
    • 23. Rhomboideus
    • Origin: Nuchal crest, spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebra
    • Insertion: dorsal border of scapula 
    • Action: retract and adduct scapula, stabilize shoulder
    • 24. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: surface of the infraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of the greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: Rotates the humerus laterally
    • 25. Supraspinatus
    • Origin: From the entire surface of the supraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: Greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: protracts the humerus
    • 26. Rhomboideus
    • Origin: Nuchal crest, spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebra
    • Insertion: dorsal border of scapula
    • Action: retract and adduct scapula, stabilize shoulder
    • 27. Masseter
    • Origin: Zygomatic arch
    • Insertion:  Masseteric fossa and adjacent portions of the mandible
    • Action: elevation of mandible
    • 28. Temporalis
    • Origin: Temporal bone and zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: coronoid process of the mandible
    • Action: Elevates mandible
    • 29. Spinodeltoid
    • Origin: spine of the scapula
    • Insertion: Deltoid ridge of the humerus
    • Action:retracts the humerus and rotates it outward
    • 30. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: Surface of the infraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of the greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: Rotates the humerus laterally
    • 31. Latissimus dorsi
    • Origin: Neural spines of 4th or 5th thoracic to the 6th lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion:  Medial surface of humerus at the proximal end
    • Action: pulls forelimb dorsocaudally
    • 32 +33.  Triceps brachii-lateral head + long head
    • Origin: deltoid ridge of proximal end of humerus; near glenoid fossa of axillary border of scapula
    • Insertion: Surface of olecranon of the ulna
    • Action:  extends the forearm
    • 34. Biceps Brachii
    • Origin:  tendon above the glenoid fossa of the scapula
    • Insertion:  by a tendon on the radial tuberosity
    • Action: Flexes the forearm synergistically with the brachialis; tends to supinate the manus; stabilizes the shoulder joint
    • 35. Subscapularis
    • Origin:  subscapular fossa
    • Insertion: lessert tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: Adducts the humerus
    • 36. Triceps Brachii
    • Origin: Lateral head-deltoid ridge of proximal end of humerus; Long head-nearglenoid fossa of axillary border of scapula; Medial head-consists of three parts, all of which originate from the humerus
    • Insertion:  BY common strong tendon onto the surface of the olecranon of the ulna
    • Action:  Extends the forearm
    • 37. Brachioradialis
    • Origin: humerus
    • Insertion: styloid process of the radius
    • Action:  supinates the manus
    • 38. Carpal Extensors
    • Origin:  lateral epicondle & distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion: base of metacarpals 3,4,&5
    • Action:  dorsoflex hand
    • 39.Digital Extensors
    • Origin:  distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion:  proximal phalanges 2-5
    • Action:  extend digits
    • 40. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • Origin: radial border of the ulna (ulnar head(, radius, interosseous ligament between the radius and ulna, and unla (Radial head),medial epicondyle of the humerus (3 humeral heads)
    • Insertion:  bases of the distal phalanx of digits 1-5
    • Actions: flexes all digits
    • 41. Carpal Flexor
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon
    • Insertion:  Base of metacarpals 2,3, ulnar side of carpals
    • Action: ventroflex hand
    • 42. Brachialis
    • Origin:  Lateral surface of humerus
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of ulna near semilunar notch
    • Action: flexes the forearm of antebrachium and is synergistic with the biceps brachii
    • 43. Triceps Brachii (lateral head)
    • Origin: Lateral head-deltoid ridge of proximal end of humerus;
    • Insertion:  By common strong tendon onto the surface of the olecranon of the ulna
    • Action:  Extends the forearm
    • 44.Supinator
    • Origin: from stabilizing elbow ligaments and the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
    • Insertion: Fibers pass obliquely to insert on the proximal third of the radius
    • Action:  supinates the forearm synergistically with the brachioradialis
    • 45. Digital Extensors
    • Origin:  distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion: proximal phalanges 2-5
    • Action:  extend digits
    • 46. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin:  ventrolateral surface of the ulna and dorsal surface of the radius
    • Insertion:  on radial side of first metacarpal
    • Action:  extends and abducts the pollex (thumb/digit 1)
    • 47. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • Origin: radial border of the ulna (ulnar head(, radius, interosseous ligament between the radius and ulna, and unla (Radial head),medial epicondyle of the humerus (3 humeral heads)
    • Insertion: 5 tendons join at the wrist to form a strong band that subdivides into 5 tendons to insert on the bases of the distal phalanx of digits 1-5
    • Actions: flexes all digits
    • 48. Carpal extensors
    • Origin:  lateral epicondyle & distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion: base of metacarpals 2,3, &5
    • Action:  dorsoflex hand
    • 49. Carpal Flexors
    • Origin:  medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon
    • Insertion:  base of metacarpals 2,3, ulnar side of carpals
    • Action:  ventroflex hand
    • 50. Pronator Teres
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • Insertion: Medial border of the radius
    • Action: Pronation of the naus by rotating the radius
    • 51.1. Flexor digitorum superficialis 
    • Origin: Superficial head- medial epicondyle of the humerus; deep head-tendon of two humeral heads of the flexor digitorum profundus
    • Insertion:  middle phalanx of digits 2-5
    • Action: Flexes digits
    • 51.2. Flexor Digitorum Profndus
    • Origin: radial border of the ulna (ulnar head(, radius, interosseous ligament between the radius and ulna, and unla (Radial head),medial epicondyle of the humerus (3 humeral heads)
    • Insertion: bases of the distal phalanx of digits 1-5
    • Action:  Flexes all digits
    • 52. Carpal Extensors
    • Origin:  lateral epicondyle & distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion: base of metacarpals 2,3, &5
    • Action:  dorsoflex hand
    • 53. Brachioradialis
    • Origin:  Humerus
    • Insertion:  Styloid process of the radius
    • Action:  Supinates the manus
    • 54. Carpal Flexors
    • Origin:  medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon
    • Insertion:  base of metacarpals 2,3, ulnar side of carpals
    • Action:  ventroflex hand
    • 55. Flexor Digitorum superfiicialis
    • Origin: Superficial head- medial epicondyle of the humerus; deep head-tendon of two humeral heads of the flexor digitorum profundus
    • Insertion:  middle phalanx of digits 2-5
    • Action: Flexes digits
    • 56. Pronator teres
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • Insertion: Medial border of the radius
    • Action:  Pronation of the manus by rotating the radius
    • 57. Carpal Flexors
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon
    • Insertion:  Base of metacarpals 2,3, ulnar side of carpals
    • Action: ventroflex hand
    • 58. Pronator teres
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • Insertion: Medial border of the radius
    • Action:  Pronation of the manus by rotating the radius
    • 59. Carpal Extensor
    • Origin:  lateral epicondyle & distolateral humerus above lateral epicondyle
    • Insertion: base of metacarpals 2,3, &5
    • Action:  dorsoflex hand
    • 60. Flexor digitorium superficialis
    • Origin: Superficial head- medial epicondyle of the humerus; deep head-tendon of two humeral heads of the flexor digitorum profundus
    • Insertion:  middle phalanx of digits 2-5
    • Action: Flexes digits
    • 61. Flexor carpi radialis
    • Origin:  medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • Insertion: Bases of the second and third metacarpals
    • Action: Flexes the wrist
    • 62. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • Origin: radial border of the ulna (ulnar head(, radius, interosseous ligament between the radius and ulna, and unla (Radial head),medial epicondyle of the humerus (3 humeral heads)
    • Insertion: bases of the distal phalanx of digits 1-5
    • Action:  Flexes all digits
    • 63. Brachioradialis
    • Origin: Humerus
    • Insertion:  Syloid process of the radius
    • Action: Supinates the manus
    • 64. Pronator quadratus
    • Origin:  ulna
    • Insertion: Radius
    • Action: Rotates the radius synergistically with the pronator teres
    • 65. Gluteus Medius
    • Origin: crest and lateral surface of the ilium, last sacral and first caudal vertebrae and adjacent fascia
    • Insertion:  greater trochanter of the femur
    • Action:  Abducts the thigh
    • 66. Gluteus maximus
    • Origin:  Last sacral and first caudal vertebrae, as well as adjacent fascia
    • Insertion:  Greater trochanter of the femur
    • Action:  Abducts the thigh
    • 67. Caudofemoralis
    • Origin:  transverse processes of second and third caudal vertebrae
    • Insertion: Thin tendon along the lateral border of the patella
    • Action:  Abducts the thigh and extends the shank
    • 68. Tensor Fascia latae
    • Origin:  Illium, fascia of surrounding hip muscle
    • Insertion:  by fascia lata. the fascia lata on the surface of the patella
    • Action:  helps to extend the shank
    • 69. Biceps femoris
    • Origin:  Ischial Tuberosity
    • Insertion:  tibia and patella
    • Action: Abducts thigh and flexes the shank
    • 70. Sartorius
    • Origin:  crest and ventral border of the ilium
    • Insertion:  Patella, tibia, and fascia of the knee
    • Action: Adducts and rotates the femur; extends the shank
    • 71. Biceps femoris
    • Origin: Ischial Tuberosity
    • Insertion: tibia and patella
    • Action: abducts thigh and flexes the shank
    • 72. Semitendinosus
    • Origin:  Ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion:  tibia
    • Action: Flexes the shank
    • 73. Caudofemoralis
    • Origin: Transverse processes of second and third caudal vertebrae
    • Insertion:  thin tendon along the lateral border of the patella
    • Action:  Abducts the thigh and extends the shank
    • 74. Tensor fascia latae
    • Origin: Illium, fascia of surrounding hip muscles
    • Insertion:  By fascia lata. THe fascia lata on the surface of the patella
    • Action:  Helps to extend the shank
    • 75. Sartorius
    • Origin: Crest and ventral border of the ilium
    • Insertion:  Patella, tibia, and fascia of the knee
    • Action:  Adducts and rotates the femur; extends the shank
    • 76. Semimembranosus
    • Origin: Ischial tuberosity and adjacent area of the ischium
    • Insertion:  Medial epicondyle of the femur and adjacent medial surface of the tibia
    • Action:  Extends the thigh
    • 77. Adductor femoris
    • Origin: Pubis and ischium
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action:  Adducts thigh
    • 79.Biceps Femoris
    • Origin: Ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion:  Tibia and patella
    • Action:  Abducts thigh and flexes the shank
    • 80. Sartorius
    • Origin: Crest and ventral border of the ilium
    • Insertion:  Patella, tibia, and fascia of the knee
    • Action: Adducts and rotates the femur; extends the shank
    • 81. Tensor fascia latae
    • Origin:  Illium, fascia of surrounding hip muscles
    • Insertion:  By fascia lata. The fascia lata on the surface of the patella
    • Action: Helps to extend the shank
    • 82.1. Rectus femoris (Quadriceps Complex) 
    • Origin: Ilium near the acetabulum
    • Insertion:  By patellar ligament on the tibial tubersotiy
    • 82.2 Vastus medialis (Quadriceps complex)
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion:  By patellar ligament on the tibial tubersotiy
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 82.3 Vastus lateralis( Quadriceps complex)
    • Origin:  greater trochanter and adjacent area of the femur
    • Insertion:  By patellar ligament on the tibial tubersotiy
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 83. Gracilis
    • Origin:  symphysis of the ischium and the pubis
    • Insertion:  think aponeruosison the mdial surface of the tibia and continuous with the fascia of the shank
    • Action: Adducts and retracts the leg
    • 84. Adductor Femoris
    • Origin: Pubis and ischium
    • Insertion:  Femur
    • Action: Adducts thigh
    • 85. Semimembranosus
    • Origin: Ischial tuberosity and adjacent area of the ischium
    • Insertion:  Medial epicondyle of the femur and adjacent medial surface of the tibia
    • Action:  Exends the thigh 
    • 86. Semitendinosus
    • Origin:  Ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: Tibia
    • Action: Flexes the shank
    • 87. Vastus lateralis
    • Origin:  Greater trochanter and adjacent area of the femur
    • Insertion: By patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 88. Vastus intermedius
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion: By patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 89. Rectus femoris
    • Origin:  Ilium near the acetabulum
    • Insertion: By patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
    • Action:  Extends the shank
    • 90. Vastus medialis
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion: By patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 91. Gastrocnemius
    • Origin: Patella, superficial fascia of the shank, the sesamoid bone, aponeurosis from the plantaris and adjacent tibia; medial head originates from the sesamoid bone above the medial epicondyle and adjacent area of the femur
    • Insertion:  By Achilles tendon inserts on proximal end of the calcaneus
    • Action:  Extends the pes
    • 92. Soleus
    • Origin: Fibula
    • Insertion:  By achilles tendon inserts on the proximal end of the calcaneus
    • Action:  synergistic extension of the pess with the gastrocnemius and plantaris
    • 93. Flexor hallucis longus(lateral digital flexor)
    • Origin:  fibula and tibia
    • Insertion:  base of the terminal phalanx of each toe
    • Action: Flexes toes and pes
    • 94. Peroneus tertius
    • Origin: Lateral surface of the tibua
    • Insertion:  first phalanx of the fifth digit
    • Action: flexes pes and abducts and extends the 5th digit
    • 95. Peroneus longus
    • Origin:  Head and lateral surface of the fibula
    • Insertion:  proximal end of all five metatarsals
    • Action: Extends the pes
    • 96. Peroneus brevis
    • Origin:  Fibula
    • Insertion:  base of the 5th metatarsal
    • Action:  extends the shank
    • 97. Tibialis cranialis
    • Origin: proximal end of the tibia and fibula
    • Insertion:  Medial surface of the first metatarsal after passing beneath the extensor retinaculum
    • Action: Flexes the pes
    • 98. Extensor digitorum longus
    • Origin:  lateral epicondyle of the femur
    • Insertion:  dorsal surface of the 2nd and 3rd phalanges of digits 2-5
    • 99. Sartorius
    • Origin:  Crest and ventral border of the ilium
    • Insertion: Patella, tibia, and fascia of the knee
    • Action: Adducts and rotates the femur; extends the shank
    • 100. Gracilis
    • Origin: Symphysis of the ischium and the pubis
    • Insertion: thin aponeurosis on the medial surface of the tibia and continuous with the fascia of the shank
    • Action:  Adducts and retracts the leg
    • 101.Tibia
    • 102. Tibialis caudalis
    • 103. Tibialis cranialis
    • 105. Grastrocnemius
    • 106.Plantaris
    • 107. Flexor digitorum longus
    • 108. Flexor hallucis longus
    • 109.Biceps femoris
    • 110. Caudofemoralis
    • 111. Gluteus Maximus
    • 112. Gluteus medius
    • 113.Pyriformis
    • 114.GLuteus minimus
    • 115. Sartorius
    • 116. Tensor fascia latae
    • 117. Caudofemoralis
    • 118. Gluteus maximus
    • 119. Pyroformis
    • 120. Biceps femoris
    • 121. Gluteus minimus

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