BIOS Past Exams II FOR CARDIO FWD

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BIOS Past Exams II FOR CARDIO FWD
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BIOS Past Exams II FOR CARDIO FWD
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  1. Which of the following statements (A-D) about veins are FALSE? If statements A-D are true,then choose E.
    A. Veins always carry blood away from the heart
    B. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
    C. Veins are typically located closer to the skin than arteries
    D. Veins in the systemic circuit typically carry deoxygenated blood
    E. All of the above statements about veins are TRUE
    A. Veins always carry blood away from the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Where is the partial pressure of O2 the lowest?
    The interstitial fluid
  3. Which organ/structure is incorrectly matched with its function?
    A. Mouth - mechanical and chemical digestion of food
    B. Stomach - production of HCl to kill bacteria as well as mechanical and chemicaldigestion
    C. Small intestine - chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
    D. Large intestine - absorption of water and minerals
    E. All of the above structures are correctly matched with their function
    E. All of the above structures are correctly matched with their function
  4. What is the function of bile?
    D. To emulsify large fat globules, creating small fat droplets
  5. Why are there millions of villi in the small intestine?
    A. They increase the surface area, which makes absorption of nutrients easier
  6. What is the function of the Na+/K+ pump in the epithelial cells lining the lumen of theproximal tubule?
    C. To pump Na+ from the lumen epithelium cells into the blood to create a Na+ gradient
  7. Which portion of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water?
    A. The descending branch, always
  8. Which of the below is not an initial tissue layer formed during gastrulation?
    B. Epiderm
  9. At a synapse, the sudden influx of ions causes vesicles full of neurotransmitters to be releasedinto the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynapticterminal, causing gated sodium channels to open in the post-synaptic neuron
    A. True
  10. Endocrine communication is slower but much less energy demanding than communicationutilizng the nervous system.
    A. True
  11. Which of the below is the body’s homeostatic regulator?
    D. Hypothalamus
  12. An animal cell has an internal osmolarity of 0.8 M. It is placed in a solution with an osmolarityof 0.5 M what will happen to the cell?
    A. It will expand
  13. 45. In the above question, the cell is _________ to the environment
    A. hypertonic
  14. What would happen if there was a mutation in a developing fetus so that it produced adulthemoglobin instead of fetal hemoglobin?
    The fetus would not get enough oxygen from the mother
  15. In which blood vessel is blood pressure greatest?
    Arteries
  16. Which chambers of the heart are involved in pulmonary circulation?
    The right atrium and ventricle
  17. In which organ(s) does mechanical digestion occur?
    • A. Mouth
    • B. Stomach
    • C. Small Intestine
    • D. A & B
    • E. A, B & C
  18. What is the primary function of the acid in the stomach?
    The acid kills bacteria
  19. In the proximal tubule epithelial cells, the Na+/K+ is found:
    On the membrane facing the blood vessel(basolateral membrane)
  20. You are properly hydrated, and then drink way too much water. How will this affect ADHlevels in your blood?
    • B. ADH levels will fall
    • C. ADH levels will not change
    • (I accepted both answers)
  21. From which tissue type does the skin and sensory organs develop?
    Ectoderm
  22. What is the function of homeotic genes (e.g. hox genes)?
    Produce products which define each segment
  23. Scientists took a homeotic gene from a mouse which guide eye development and spliced thisinto a fly. They then watched as this gene brought about:
    ... the development of a fly eye in the fly
  24. The brain is part of the:
    Central nervous system
  25. What was Mike’s drink of choice in lecture?
    C. Diet Coke
  26. Which of the following changes to arteries will increase blood pressure?
    • Reduction of elasticity of the arterial walls
    • Plaque formation on the inner arterial walls which decreases the diameter of ateries
    • Increased sodium which increases the volume of the blood
  27. In which vessel is blood pressure the lowest?
    Veins
  28. Which of the following systems or processes does not utilize the circulatory system?Thermoregulation
    Digestion
    Immune responses
    Endocrine
    All of the above utilize the circulatory system
  29. Which of the four muscular chambers of the human heart directly propels blood into the pulmonary circulation?
    right ventricle
  30. Which of the following is the correct pathway that blood takes through the heart to oxygenateblood?
    Vena cava - Right Atrium - Right Ventricle - Pulmonary Artery - Lungs -Pulmonary Vein - Left Atrium - Left Ventricle - Aorta
  31. Which of the following statements (A-D) about veins are FALSE? If statements A-D are true,then choose E.
    A. Veins always carry blood away from the heart
    B. Veins in the systemic circuit typically carry deoxygenated blood
    C. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
    D. Veins are typically located closer to the skin than arteries
    E. All of the above statements about veins are TRUE
    Veins always carry blood away from the heart
  32. 7. You are a physician, and you are seeing a patient who complains of abnormal fatigue duringexercise. You find that the immediate problem is a buildup of carbon dioxide in thetissues. What is the most likely cause?
    abnormal carbonic anhydrase
  33. Which of the following has the greatest concentration of CO2?
    I. The air II. Blood entering the alveolar capillariesIII. Blood leaving the alveolar capillaries IV. Blood entering the body tissue capillariesV. Blood leaving the body tissue capillaries VI. The interstitial tissues
    D. VI
  34. Which of the following statements (A-D) about fetal hemoglobin is FALSE? If statements A-Dare true, then choose E.
    A. Fetal hemoglobin has more affinity for O2 than does maternal (adult) hemoglobin
    B. Production of fetal hemoglobin eventually stops and is replaced with adult hemoglobin
    C. Fetal hemoglobin has more affinity for O2 than does myoglobin
    D. Fetal hemoglobin is what carries oxygen in the fetal circulatory system
    E. All of the above statements about fetal hemoglobin are TRUE
    C. Fetal hemoglobin has more affinity for O2 than does myoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Why does a fungus have a mycelium (tube-like body structure) instead of a solid mass of tissues like animals?
    The mycelium provide more surface area, which facilitates water absorption and digestion
  36. In what form is the majority of CO2 transported in the circulatory system?
    HCO3-
  37. How are nutrients such as glucose absorbed into the epithelial layer of the small intestine?
    There are Na+/Glucose facilitated diffusion symports which bring glucose into the epithelial cells down the net concentration gradient of Na+ and glucose
  38. Both mechanical and chemical digestion occur here
    I. Mouth II. Stomach
  39. 15. This organ has the greatest internal surface area of any organ in the digestive system
    C. III Small intestine
  40. Why wasn’t Olestra fattening?
    Olestra did not fit into the active sites of digestive enzymes, so it wasn’t digested
  41. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, attacks cells with CD4+ markers. In your immune system,Helper T Cells possess these CD4+ markers and, when a patient develops full blown AIDS,the number of Helper T Cells in their body declines. Which of the following systems arecompromised when the number of Helper T Cells declines?
    I. Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells II. Activation of B Cells
  42. Which of the following statements (A-D) about activation of a Cytotoxic T Cell and activation ofa B Cell is FALSE? If statements A-D are true, then choose E
    A. Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells requires interaction with a Helper T Cell whileactivation of a B Cell does not
    B. Activation of a B cell requires direct contact with the pathogen
    C. Activation of a Cytotoxic T Cell requires interaction of the Cytotoxic T Cell and anAntigen-Presenting Cell
    D. Activation of both Cytotoxic T and B cells initiates rapid clonal division resulting in largepopulations of effector cells and a smaller population of memory cells
    E. All of the above statements about activation of Cytotoxic T and B Cells are TRUE.
    Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells requires interaction with a Helper T Cell whileactivation of a B Cell does not
  43. When you get an immunization like a flu shot, what is typically being injected into your body?
    A deactivated or greatly weaked flu virus which still causes your body to have animmune response. This will generate populations of memory cells, granting you immunity to the pathogen
  44. Which component of the immune system is most effective at preventing the body from beinginvaded by pathogens?
    The skin
  45. Which of the cells below is involved in regulating blood flow during the inflammation responseto a wound?
    B. Mast Cells
  46. You and a friend are in line at the DMV where you notice the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both of you have been equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the nextfew days, only your friend acquires flu-like symptoms and is ill for almost a week before recovering. You remain fine. Which one of the following is the most logical explanation forthis?
    You have been previously exposed to this virus and have generated a memorypopulation, preventing you from getting really sick
  47. Which of the following is most accurate regarding blood vessels leading to a fresh wound?
    Vessels are constricted near the wound and dilated farther away from the wound.
  48. What major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity?
    Adaptive immunity enables a rapid defense against an antigen that has beenpreviously encountered.
  49. How is the Na+/K+ pump utilized in the proximal tubule of the nephron?
    The Na+/K+ pump creates low concentration of Na+ in the epithelial cell of theproximal tubule which drives diffusion through the facilitated diffusion symports
  50. Which of the following structures utilize the salinity gradient in the medulla of the kidney to remove water from the filtrate?
    Descending branch of the Loop of Henle

    Collecting Duct
  51. The blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferentarteriole. How is the high pressure of the glomerulus generated?
    The diameter of the afferent arteriole is much larger than the diameter of theefferent arteriole, and this generates the glomerular pressure
  52. Aldosterone affect permeability of the walls of the _________ to Na+?
    Distal tubule
  53. What would happen if there was a mutation and the walls of the ascending branch of the Loop of Henle were permeable to water?
    The vasa recta could not collect as much water from the filtrate and the organism would face dehydration
  54. ADH activity is an example of _____________ action
    C. endocrine
  55. What is a hormone antagonist?
    A molecule that binds to the hormone receptor site, impeding or preventing thehormone’s ability to bind and generate an effect
  56. At a synapse, the sudden influx of ions causes versicles full of neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic terminal,causing gated sodium channels to open in the post-synaptic neuron
    True
  57. What is the primary function of the cerebellum?
    D. It coordinates movement
  58. Tumors in which portion of the brain could cause difficulties with vision?
    Occipital lobe

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