HNF Exam 3 Study Guide

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Michellelynn93
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HNF Exam 3 Study Guide
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2013-12-03 14:28:16
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HNF Exam Study Guide
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MSU HNF Exam 3 Study Guide
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  1. Energy Balance
    bomb calorimeter
    •   – for measuring energy content of food.  (understand principle)
    • o   measured (gross) energy values are higher than the physiological fuel values (4,4,9,7)
    • §  digestion efficiency, energy content of excreted urea (proteins)
  2. Obesity
    • ·        BMI: weight in kg/(height in meters)2
    • ·         Overweight BMI > 25
    • ·         Obese BMI > 30
    • o   About 2/3 of adults are overweight or obese
    • o   Michigan, over 30% obesity now, huge upward trend over the last 20 years
    • ·         Table 10-2 – obesity-related health concerns (be able to recognize)
  3. Energy Expenditure
    • ·         Basal metabolism
    • o   ~60-70% of total energy use
    • o   Basal Metabolic Rate influenced by lean body mass, body surface area, nutritional state, pregnancy, caffeine and tobacco
    • o   BMR decreases when losing weight
    • ·         Resting metabolic rate – 6% higher than BMR
    • ·         Physical activity
    • o   20-35% of total energy use
    • ·         Thermic effect of food (TEF)
    • o   5-10% of total energy use
    • o   Energy cost of digesting, absorbing, and metabolizing food
    • ·         Adaptive thermogenesis, Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
    • o   Calorie expenditure that accompanies physical activity other than volitional exercise
    • o   Response to cold temperature conditions
    • o   Adaptive response involving the sympathetic nervous system
    • o   Fidgeting, shivering, etc…
    • o   Related to Brown fat
  4. Direct calorimetry
    • o   Measures heat released by person (insulated room)
  5. Indirect Calorimetry
    • o   Measures oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release
    • o   Food  + O2 = CO2 + H2O + heat
    • o   Respiration measurements à Measure O2  or CO2 during experiment
    • o   use of stable isotopes
    • §  isotopically labeled water: 2H2O and H218O intake, take blood or saliva sample before and after, use value changes to estimate amount of CO2 produced – very expensive.
  6. Estimation of Energy
    • ·         The estimate for total energy expenditure = BMR + PA + TEF estimates
    • ·         BMR =
    • o   For women:       0.9 kcal/kg body weight / hour
    • o   For men:              1.0 kcal/kg body weight / hour
    • ·         Physical activity contribution
    • o   Sedentary:                          add 20-40% of BMR
    • o   moderate activity:           add 55-65% of BMR
    • o   heavy activity:                   add 80-100% of BMR
    • ·         TEF (thermic effect of food) = 10% of (BMR + PA)
  7. Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs)
    • Based on calculation using age, weight, height, physical activity level
    • ·         Different equation for men and women
    • ·         This is what was used in SuperTracker (our diet assessment calculations)
  8. Hunger
    • ·         Hunger is the physiological drive to find and eat food
    • o   Controlled in part by interactions of the gut, liver, and central nervous system
    • o   Hypothalamus integrates regulation of food intake
    • o   Vagus nerve, sympathetic nervous system
    • o   Understand difference between hunger (physiological) and appetite (psychological)
  9. Hunger Signals
    • o   Blood glucose is one signal to regulate feeding
    • o   Hormones involved in hunger:
    • §  stimulating hunger and feeding
    • ·         Neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, endorphins, ghrelin, and glucocorticoids
    • §  inhibiting hunger and feeding
    • ·         CCK – secreted by intestinal cells
    • o   Slows gastric emptying, increases pancreatic secretions, contract gall bladder, and helps you feel satiated
    • ·         Insulin – responsible for glucose regulation, but also helps you feel satiated
    • o   Insulin crosses the blood brain barrier to act in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake
    • ·         Leptin
    • o   Fat cells produce the hormone, leptin
    • o   Larger fat cells produce more leptin
    • o   Leptin travels via blood to hypothalamus to decrease food intake
    • o   Larger fat cells also are less responsive to insulin so see increase in blood insulin
    • o   People with larger fat cells often become resistant to the food decreasing actions of leptin and insulin
  10. Body Mass Index- BMI
    • ·         Weight in kg/(height in meters)2
    • ·         Concept originated from examination of Life Insurance data
    • ·         BMI does not directly measure body fat
    • ·         Useful in large-scale assessments, NHANES for example
    • ·         Healthy People 2020 – Physicians instructed to calculate and track BMI on patients

  11. Healthy weight
    ·         BMI of 18.5-24.9
    Overweight
    ·         25-29.9 BMI
    Obese
    ·         BMI over 30
  12. Obesity Health Risks
    • ·         Risk factor for type 2 diabetes (10% of adults)
    • o   About a third of the obese population is type II diabetic
    • ·         Increased risk for CVD, stroke, hypertension
    • o   Type II diabetes increases risk of CVD & stroke 3-4x
    • ·         Increased risk for joint problems, surgical risk, and some cancers
  13. Measurement of Body Fat
    • ·         Underwater weighing (measures body density, from which % fat is calculated). 
    • ·         Bioelectrical impedance
    • o   Low voltage current run through body.
    • ·         Skinfold measurements
    • o   Estimate of subcutaneous fat
    • ·         DEXA scan

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