Chapter 14.txt

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Chapter 14.txt
2013-12-03 17:42:10
Nervous System
Nervous System
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  1. cephal/o
    • head
    • ex. cephalalgia: head pain
  2. cerebell/o
    little brain
  3. cerebr/o
  4. cran/i & crani/o
    • skull
    • ex. crainiectomy: surgical excision of a portion of the skull
  5. dendr/o
    • tree
    • ex. oligodendroglioma: malignant tumor derived and composed of oligodendroglia
  6. dur/o
    dura, hard
  7. encephal/o
    • brain
    • ex. anencephaly: congenital condtion in which thre is lack of development of the brain.
  8. esthesi/o
  9. gli/o
    • glue
    • ex. neuroglia:
  10. hypn/o
    • sleep
    • ex. hypnosis: artificially induced state
  11. lamin/o
    thin plate
  12. mening/i & mening/o
    • membrane, meninges
    • ex. meningitis: inflammation of the meninges
  13. -lepsy
  14. ment/o
  15. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  16. narc/o
    numbness, sleep, stupor
  17. neur/i & neur/o
    • nerve
    • ex. neuralgia: pain in a nerve
  18. phe/o
    • dusky
    • ex. pheochromocytoma: chromaffin cell tumor of the adrenal medulla or the sympathetic nervous system
  19. vag/o
    • vagus, wandering
    • ex. vagotomy: surgical incision of the vagus nerve
  20. Gray matter
    contains cell bodies and dendrites (neuron stucture which contains the NEURON)
  21. White matter
    contains myelinated axons (axons are long and single)
  22. Frontal Lobe - Cerebrum
    brains major motor area and site for personality and speech.
  23. Temporal Lobe - Cerebrum
    contains centres for hearing, smell and language input
  24. 4 Lobes of the brian
    frontal, parietal, temporal & occipital lobe
  25. Cerebrum
    front of skull; largest part of the brain
  26. Cerebellum
    back of the skull; 2nd largest part of the brain; plays important role in coordination of voluntary/involuntary movements and maintains posture.
  27. Thalamus
    2 large masses of gray cell bodies; serves and relay centre for all sensory impulses
  28. Hypothalamus
    principle regulator of autonomic nervouse activity associated with behavior and emotional expression.
  29. Pons
    composed of fiber tracts linking the cerebellum and medulla to higher cortical areas.
  30. Meduall oblongata
    contains nerve centres for regulation and control of breathing, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomitting, heart beat and blood pressure.
  31. ACh
    acetylcholine: cholinergic neurotransmitter; plays an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses at snapses and myoneural junctions.
  32. ALS
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis / Lou Gehrig's disease: muscular weakness, atrophy with spasticity caused by degeneration of motor neurons.
  33. -phagia
    • to eat, swallow
    • ex. aphagia
  34. -phasia
    • to speak, speech
    • ex. aphasia
  35. CVA
    cerebrovascular accident, ei, STROKE or brain attack
  36. TIA
    transient ischemic attack; mini stroke
  37. syncope
  38. tactile
    pertaining to touch
  39. CT
    computerized tomography
  40. PET
    positron emission tomography
  41. AD
  42. CSF
    cerebrospinal fluid
  43. EEG
  44. HDS
    herniated disk syndrome
  45. ICP
    intracrainial pressure