Rock Def GEO 3

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Anonymous
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25053
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Rock Def GEO 3
Updated:
2010-06-27 23:51:27
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Rock Def GEO
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Rock Def GEO 3
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  1. Rock Deformation
    • A.When rocks are stressed beyond their elastic limit, permanent deformation results
    • B. Types of stress
    • 1. Tensional Stress-divergent plate boundaries
    • 2.Compressional stress-convergent plate boundaries
    • 3.Shear stress- transform boundaries
  2. Altitude of Beds
    • A.Dip-angle of inclination of beds measured from the horizontal
    • B.Strike-line formed by the intersection of a dipping bed and the earths surface
    • C.Dip Directinon-direction into which a bed descends(slopes)
  3. Folds
    • A. Compressional stress causes shortening and thickening of the crust
    • B.Most folds form during mountain building events
    • C. Types of of folds
    • 1. Anticline-
    • a.Upward fold in rocks
    • b.Limbs dip away from the center of fold
    • c. Oldest rocks exposed in center
    • 2.Syncline
    • a. downward fold in rocks
    • b. Limbs dip toward center of fold
    • c. Youngest rocks exposed in the center
  4. FOLDS
    • D.SYMMETRY OF NONPLUNGING FOLDS
    • 1. Fold is axis horizontal
    • 2.Symmetrical antincline or syncline
    • a. Limbs dip at about the same angle
    • 3. Asymmetrical anticline or syncline
    • a. One limb is inclined more steeply than the other limb
    • 4. Overturned anticline or syncline
    • a. Limbs are inclined in the same direction
    • 5.Recumbent anticline or syncline-axial plane is horizontal
    • 6. Erosion of nonplunging folds-repetition of beds
    • E. PLUNGING FOLDS
    • 1. Axis is inclined
    • 2.Eroded plunging anticlines
    • a. Oldest rocks exposed in center
    • b. Rocks dip away from centre
    • c. "V" points in direction of plunge
    • 3. Eroded plunging synclines
    • a. Youngest rocks exposed in center
    • b.Rocks dip toward from center
    • c. "V"points away from the direction of plunge
    • F.DOMES
    • 1. Circular or oval equivalents of anticlines
    • 2.Oldest beds exposed in center
    • 3. Black Hills, South Dakota
    • G. BASINS
    • 1. Circular or oval equivalents of synclines
    • 2.Youngest beds exposed in center
    • 3. Michigan Basin
    • 4.Both domes and basins normally form inside continents (not at plate boundaries)
  5. Faults
    • A. Fractures in crust along which displacement has occurred
    • B.DIP SLIP FAULTS
    • 1. NORMAL FAULTS
    • a. Hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block
    • b.Result from tensional stress
    • c. Grabens- central blocks that dropped down along normal faults
    • d. Horsts-uplifted blocks that bound grabens
    • 2. Reverse faults-
    • a. Hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block
    • b. Result from compressional stress
    • 3.Thrust faults-low angle reverse faults
    • B. STIRKE SLIP FAULTS
    • 1. Displacement is horizontal
    • a. Right lateral strike slip faults
    • b. Left-lateral strike slip faults
    • 2. Transform fault-type of strike -slip fault found at plate boundary
  6. Joints
    • A. Fractures in rocks along which no appreciable displacement has occurred
    • B. SHEET JOINTS
    • 1. Form in igneous rocks as erosion removes the overburden
    • 2. Exfoliation domes form as a result of rocks breaking off along sheet joints
    • C. COLUMNAR JOINTS- elongate, pillarlike columns form as basalt cools and shrinks
    • D. TECTONIC JOINTS-forces associated with crustal movement cause rocks to fracture

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