Chemistry Ch 7+8 Vocab

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Henri93
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250562
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Chemistry Ch 7+8 Vocab
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2013-12-03 20:26:43
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Chemistry Vocab
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Chemistry Ch 7+8 Vocab
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  1. an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
    ion
  2. any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
    cation
  3. any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
    anion
  4. an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
    valence electron
  5. a notation that depicts valence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol of the element; the symbol represents the inner electrons and atomic nucleus; also called Lewis dot structure
    electron dot structure
  6. atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons
    octet rule
  7. a negative ion formed when a halogen atom gains an electron
    halide ion
  8. a compound composed of positive and negative ions
    ionic compound
  9. the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
    ionic bond
  10. an expression that indicates the number and type of atoms present in the smallest representative unit of a substance
    chemical formula
  11. the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound; in magnesium chloride, the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1:2 and the formula unit is MgCl2
    formula unit
  12. the number of ions of opposite charge that surround each ion in a crystal
    coordination number
  13. sone of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny
    metal
  14. the force of attraction that holds metals together; it consists of the attraction of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions
    metallic bond
  15. a mixture composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
    alloy
  16. a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
    covalent bond
  17. a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
    molecule
  18. a molecule consisting of two atoms
    diatomic molecule
  19. a compound that is composed of molecules
    molecular compound
  20. a chemical formula of a molecular compound that shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound
    molecular formula
  21. a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons
    single covalent bond
  22. a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion; each dash between a pair of atoms indicates a pair of shared electrons
    structural formula
  23. a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms
    unshared pair
  24. a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
    double covalent bond
  25. a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
    triple covalent bond
  26. a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
    coordinate covalent bond
  27. a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and has a positive or negative charge
    polyatomic ion
  28. the energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms; this value is usually expressed in kJ per mol of substance
    bond dissociation energy
  29. one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or polyatomic ion
    resonance structure
  30. an orbital that applies to the entire molecule
    molecular orbital
  31. a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond
    bonding orbital
  32. a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine for form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
    sigma bond
  33. a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms
    pi bond
  34. a bond angle of 109.5° that results when a central atom forms four bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron
    tetrahedral angle
  35. valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory; because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible
    VSEPR theory
  36. the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
    hybridization
  37. a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms
    nonpolar covalent bond
  38. a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally
    polar covalent bond
  39. a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally
    polar bond
  40. a molecule in which one side of the molecule is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive
    polar molecule
  41. a molecule that has two poles, or regions with opposite charges
    dipole
  42. the two weakest intermolecular attractions—dispersion interactions and dipole forces
    van der Waals forces
  43. intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
    Dipole interactions
  44. attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; these are the weakest interactions between molecules
    Dispersion forces
  45. attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
    hydrogen bond
  46. a solid in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other
    network solid

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