BIOS 100 Immune systems
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Cells produce proteins or glycoproteinson the outer surface of their plasma membrane. Immune system uses these molecules as a way of identifying self and non-self cells. How does this occur?
- –“list” of approved proteins to be on your cells
- –A protein or glycoprotein not on this approved list is called an antigen (Non-self Cell)
Some cells are ready to respond to invaders and others must be activated. What are they?
- –Innate Immunity – cells always ready to confer immunity
- –Adaptive Immunity – cells selectively activated to eliminate a specific pathogen aka Acquired Immunity
What are first line of defense?
- Skin, mucous, Cilia
- Responsible for keeping out over 99% of all pathogens encountered
What's second line of defense?
- Active, non-specific
- Mast Cells, Neutrophils, Macrophages, Dendritric Cells
What do Mast cells do?
Release signals that constrict blood flow from wound and increase blood flow to wound area
What do Neutrophils do?
Kill invading cells via phagocytosis
What are Macrophages?
Release cytokines that recruit other cells to would site and stimulate a variety of activities; kill invading cells via phagocytosis
Third line of defense feature Specificity what's its function?
Antibodies and other components of the adaptive immune system bind only to specific sites on the antigens called epitomes
Features of the third line of defense include diversity whats its function:
Adaptive response recognizes an almost limitless array of antigens
Features of the third line of defense includes memory whats its function?
The adaptive response can be reactivate quickly if it recognized antigens from previous infections
Features of the third line of defense includes Self-Nonself Recognition because:
Can recognize self cells and non-self cells
Features of the third line of defense include–Activation
The Third Line of Defense must be activated
Components of the Third Line of Defense are:
- Antigen Presenting Cells–Dendritic cells and Macrophages
- Effector (activated) Helper T Cells–Activate
- Effector Cytotoxic T Cells–Seek out and destroy cells with specific antigens
- Effector B Cells (Plasma Cells)–Produce antibodies
The MHC protein complex is displayed on the cell surface. Enzymes break down antigen proteins and they become bound to Major Histocompatibility Proteins. What is the cell now called?
Antigen Presenting Cell (APC)
What's difference between CD4 and CD8?
- CD4+ cells become Helper T Cells when activated by an antigen presenting cell
- CD8+ cells become Cytotoxic T Cells when activated by an antigen presenting cell
T-cell Activation is a Cell-mediated Response. What's the process when APC binds to a CD4+ cell, and it becomes a Helper T Cell?
- Rapidly divides (clonal division), forming an army of Effector Helper T Cells
- Memory cells are also formed
T-cell Activation is a Cell-mediated Response. What's the process when APC binds to a CD8+ cell, and gives it its first activation signal?
- An Effector Helper T Cell usually gives the CD8+ cell its second activation signal
- After two signals, the Cytotoxic T Cell divides (clonal division), forming an army of Cytotoxic T Cells
- –Memory cells are also formed
What happen when effector cytotoxic T cells are released?
- –They search for cells with the specific antigen (ignoring all others)
- –When they find it, they release granules (chemicals), which induce pathogen self-destruction
What is the process of B Cell Activation: Humoral Response?
- B cell binds to foreign antigens, processes them, and the display them on surface(signal 1)
- B cell binds to Helper T cell, activating the Helper T Cell
- Activated Helper T Cell activates B Cell (signal 2)
- Activated B Cell divides (clonal division) producing Plasma Cells which produce Antibodies-produces memory populations
Functions of antibodies are:
- produced by the billions by plasma cells
- bind to antigens on phatogens
- effects are: mark pathogens for destruction, aggregate pathogens, reduce mobility of pathogen, prevents viruses from infecting cell
What's an epitome"?
a specific region of the antigen where antibodies, BCRs, and TCRs can bind
The sequence of amino acids in the light chains of B-cell receptors (BCR) consists of two regions. What is the Molecular Basis of Antibody Specificity and Diversity?
- –One that is virtually identical in all receptors–One that is highly variable
- know as the constant (C) region and the variable (V) regions. There was also variability in T-Cell Receptors (TCR)
what is process of vaccinations?
- Inject someone with a deactivated virus or a dead bacteria (or just the antigens)
- Allow body to have a natural immune response and generate memory populations
- When the individual is exposed to the live pathogen, the memory populations have a much quicker response and the person will usually not get sick.
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