EARTHQUAKES GEO 3

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Anonymous
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25058
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EARTHQUAKES GEO 3
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2010-06-28 00:32:55
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EARTHQUAKES GEO
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EARTHQUAKES GEO 3
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  1. EARTHQUAKES
    • A.Sudden vibration of the earth caused by release of energy
    • B.Most earthquakes are generated by movement along fault
    • C. Focus-area insdie the earth where the energy is released
    • 1.Shallow focus earthquakes-occur less than 40 miles within the earth
    • 2. Deep focus earthquakes- occur greaer than 180 miles within the earth
    • D. Epicenter-location on Earths surface directly above the focus
    • E.Foreshocks-smaller earthquakes that preced a larger earthquake
    • F. Aftershocks-smaller earthquakes that follow a large earthquake
    • G.Elastic Rebound Theory
    • 1. Rocks along an active fault plane stick
    • 2.Rocks on either side of fault slowly bend and store energy
    • 3.Eventually internal strength of rocks along fault plane are exceeded and they rupture
    • 4.Rocks on either side of fault plane "snap back" to their original position, releasing energy that radiates all directions
  2. Seismology
    • A. STUDY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
    • B.TYPES OF SEISMOGRAPHS
    • 1. Vertical motion detector
    • 2. Horizontal motion detector
    • C. SEISMORGRAM-seismograph record
  3. EARTHQUAKE WAVES
    • A. BODY WAVES-move through the Earths interior
    • 1.P-waves
    • a. Arrive first at seismic recording station
    • b. Rocks expand and contract as waves move through them
    • c. Travel through solids, liquids, and gases
    • 2. S-waves
    • a. Arrive second at a recording station
    • b. Shake rocks at right angles to their direction of travel
    • c. Travel only through solids
    • B.SURFACE WAVES-travel along Earths surface
    • 1. Cause much of the damage associaed with earthquakes
  4. Locating Earthquakes
    look at page 101!!!
  5. Measuring Earthquakes
    • A. MODIFIED MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE
    • 1.Measures damage done and peoples reactions to earthquakes
    • 2. Used primarily by insurace companies
    • B. RICHTER SCALE
    • 1. Magnitude scale that measures amplitude of the largest wave recorded
    • 2. The difference between any two numberes represents a 32 fold increase in energy released
  6. Damages Associated with Earthquakes
    • A. GROUND SHAKING- causes the most damage and loss of life
    • 1. Geology and ground shaking
    • a. Solid bedrock-structures built on solid bedrock generally suffer less damage
    • b. Liquefaction- water saturated sediment may lose cohesion when shaken and flow
    • 2. Building materials and ground shaking
    • a. Wood and reinforced concrete tend to be more flexible
    • b. Brick and unreinforced concrete tend to crumble
    • B. TSUNAMI
    • 1. Series of waves generated by earthquakes , volcanic eruptions, underwater landslides
    • 2. Are 3-6 feet high when travel across ocean
    • 3. As waves enter shallow water, they slow and begin to build
    • 4.Tsunami may come onshore as waves or as rapid rise in water
    • C. LANDSLIDES- vibrations frm earthquakes may generate mass wasting events
    • D. GROUND SUBSIDENCE-ground surface may subside due to movement along faults
    • E. FIRE

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