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1. What is the maximum allowable fuel imbalance when performing stalls, spins, or aerobatics? (B/1/1)
d. 50 lbs
2. What is the one thing that will cause an aircraft to stall? (C/1/1)
c. Exceeding the stall AOA
3. The T-6A stall AOA is ______ units. (C/1/2)
4. A sense of change in direction or speed of motion is called ______. (C/1/3)
5. The stick shaker will activate ______ knots prior to stall. (C/1/4)
6. For the purpose of training, full stall is considered the point at which the first ______ occurs. (C/1/5)
d. uncommanded nose drop and/or rolling motion
8. When do you initiate recovery procedures when performing a break stall? (E/1/1)
b. At the first approach-to-stall indication (normally stick shaker)
9. The recovery procedures for the overshooting (nose-low) final turn stall should be applied ______.(E/2/1)
10. An undershooting (nose-high) final turn stall is most likely to be encountered if the aircraft is flown too tight on downwind or there are strong overshooting winds. (E/3/1)
b. False...overshooting (nose-low)
11. The landing attitude stall demonstrates what can happen if you get too slow on final or flare too highfor landing. (E/4/1)
12. Establish ______ KIAS to enter the closed pullup stall. (E/5/1)
13. Entry airspeed for the clean glide stall exercise is ______. (F/1/1)
d. 125 KIAS
14. To recover from the high key to low key ELP stall,______. (F/2/1)
a. maintain turn and lower the nose
15. Initiate recovery from the low key to runway ELP stall ______. (F/3/1)
- b. when approach to a stall is noted
- c. at stick shaker activation
16. To initiate an intentional slip from wings level flight ______. (G/1/1)
c. lower one wing while applying opposite (top) rudder
17. In the T-6A, slow flight airspeed is ______ - ______ knots (LDG flaps) and power is set toapproximately ______ % torque. (H/1/1)
b. 80; 85; 45
18. During slow flight, quickly increasing power to MAX with no other control inputs will cause the noseto track ______ and ______, causing airspeed to decrease and the aircraft to approach a stall. (H/1/2)
d. up; left
1. When flying several stalls in a series the Pre-Stalling/Spinning/Aerobatic checklist ______ be repeated.
b. does not need to
2. Stall AOA is ______ for a given airfoil while stall airspeed is ______.
a. constant; variable
3. ______ control pressure resistance and ______ control response may indicate an impending stall.
c. Decreasing; slowed
4. What is the one thing that must occur in order for an aircraft to stall?
c. Stall AOA must be exceeded
5. Power-on stall recovery is initiated at ______.
b. the first uncommanded nose drop and/or rolling motion
6. Entry airspeed for the Clean Glide ELP stall is ______ KIAS.
7. Initiate recovery from the undershooting (nose-high) final turn stall at ______.
a. the first approach-to-stall indication
8. The overshooting (nose-low) final turn stall simulates what happens if the aircraft is flown too ______ on inside downwind.
9. When recovering from the landing attitude stall, set power to ______.
10. Intentionally slipping the aircraft can be used to ______.
a. significantly increase your descent rate while maintaining a constant airspeed and ground track
11. During the slow flight coordination exercise, fly a series of left and right turns using ______ of bank.
c. 15° to 20°
12. In the slow flight flap retraction demonstration, airspeed will initially ______ as the flaps are retracted.
1. What is the definition for inverted flight? (B/2/1)
d. Any pitch or bank angle exceeding 90°
2. When recovering the aircraft from inverted flight, you will need to ______ to an upright level flight attitude with constant airspeed. (B/2/2)
c. perform a coordinated roll towards the most sky
3. If you encounter low airspeed during the roll portion of the inverted flight recovery _____. (B/2/3)
d. allow the nose to fall
4. When the aircraft is in a nose-low attitude, it will gain airspeed while decreasing altitude. What do you want to do in this situation? (B/3/1)
a. Recover the aircraft to a level flight path as soon as possible
5. What is the maximum operating airspeed limitation, VMO? (B/3/2)
b. 316 KIAS
6. During the nose-low recovery you should not apply back stick pressure until the wings have reached a point where they are less than ______ to the horizon. (B/3/3)
7. If aircraft appears to be in an excessive nose-low attitude, there is a potential for excessive altitude loss. To avoid this loss of altitude ______. (B/3/4)
c. place the PCL in the IDLE position and extend the speedbrake as necessary
8. To recover from a nose-high attitude you must adjust the power to ______ and initiate a coordinated roll towards the ______ horizon while applying ______ stick pressure. (B/4/1)
b. MAX; nearest; back
9. Depending on the initial airspeed and attitude of the aircraft at the beginning of the nose-high recovery, a wings-level inverted attitude may be attained. What should you do if this occurs? (B/4/2)
c. Roll to an upright attitude as the nose approaches the horizon.
10. Under what conditions should you perform an out-of-control flight recovery? (B/4/3)
a. Disorienting nose-high situations and/or aircraft not responding normally
1. When recovering the aircraft from inverted flight, you will need to perform a coordinated roll in the shortest direction ______ to an upright level flight attitude with constant airspeed.
a. towards the most sky
2. If you encounter low airspeed during the roll portion of an inverted flight recovery, you should not prevent the nose from falling.
3. The aircraft is in an unintentional nose-low attitude gaining airspeed while decreasing altitude. Once you recognize this scenario you will want to ______.
d. recover the aircraft to a level flight attitude as soon as possible
4. During a nose-low recovery, you do NOT want to apply back stick pressure until the wings have reached a point where they are less than ______ to the horizon.
5. Which of the following is the proper procedure when initiating a nose-high recovery with adequate airspeed?
b. Adjust power to MAX, initiate a coordinated roll towards the nearest horizon and apply back stick pressure.
6. Unless the proper recovery procedures are initiated during a nose-high recovery, the aircraft may enter an aggravated stall, which can result in a spin.
7. Under what conditions should you perform an out-of-control flight recovery?
c. Disorienting nose-high situations and/or aircraft not responding normally
8. Nose-low recoveries should NOT involve the maximum amount of allowable G-forces unless altitude is critical.
9. The key to aircraft recoveries from unusual attitudes is early recognition.
1. An OCF condition can be caused by stalling the aircraft ______. (B/1/1)
c. in uncoordinated flight
2. Which is the first, or initial, stage of out-of-control flight? (B/1/2)
b. Poststall gyrations
3. Which of the following is NOT an indication of a poststall gyration? (B/1/3)
c. Steady airspeed indications
4. Which of the following is NOT prohibited in the T-6A? (B/1/4)
a. Aerobatic maneuvers, spins, or stalls with a fuel imbalance less than 50 pounds between wings
5. During a practice OCF entry, you must set the PCL to IDLE ______. (B/1/5)
a. prior to applying rudder
7. How do know that neutral controls are becoming effective in eliminating an OCF condition? (B/1/7)
d. Yaw rate decreases and the nose pitches down
8. What are the two categories of steady-state spins for the T-6A? (C/1/1)
d. Erect spins and inverted spins
9. Which of the following is NOT an indication of an erect spin? (C/1/2)
b. Ball in the direction of spin
11. Rate-of-turn pointer deflection can be used to determine the difference between a spiral and a spin. (C/1/4)
b. False...it will deflect the same direction
12. Which of the following is a proper indication of an inverted spin? (C/1/5)
b. AOA indicating zero units
13. The purpose of the stability demonstration is to show that even from high pitch attitudes and slow airspeed, an aircraft will NOT spin as long as it is not allowed to stall.
1. Which of the following is NOT an OCF condition?
c. Power-on stall
2. What will happen if OCF recovery procedures are not performed during the initial two stages of an OCF condition?
d. The aircraft will eventually transition to a steady-state spin.
3. Which of the following is an indication of an incipient spin?
d. Rate-of-turn pointer fully deflected in the direction of rotation
4. What is the approximate practice spin entry airspeed?
b. 80 KIAS
5. You are performing a practice OCF recovery. When do you begin the recovery?
c. When directed by the IP
6. What is the first step of the Inadvertent Departure From Controlled Flight checklist?
c. PCL - IDLE
7. When do you begin the unusual attitude recovery after performing the OCF recovery procedure?
c. When aircraft gyrations stop and the aircraft is under control
8. Which of the following is an indication of an erect spin?
d. Airspeed stabilized at 120 - 135 KIAS
9. You are in an unintentional incipient spin withthe EADI indication shown below. To recover,you should position the rudder pedals to ______.
10. To recover from an inverted spin check the following: gear, flaps and speed brake – Retracted, PCL –IDLE, apply full rudder opposite the rate-of-turn pointer, and ______.
c. stick aft of neutral (up to full aft stick may be used)
11. The best control inputs to recover from a spiral are PCL to IDLE and _______.
d. neutral stick and neutral rudder
12. Enter a stability demonstration maneuver by accelerating to 160 KIAS, adjusting power to 60% torque, and raising the nose to a ______ pitch attitude.
1. A MOA is ______. (B/1/1)
c. an airspace for military aircraft to perform maneuvers in the lateral, vertical, and horizontal planes
2. MOAs, alert areas, and the working areas within them are typically defined by ______ or ______, and ______. (B/1/2)
d. VORTAC, radials, and DME, latitude and longitude coordinates, altitude in MSL (or flight levels for MOAs)
3. Alert area altitude blocks are normally from the surface up to and including FL180. (B/1/3)
4. Civilian aircraft are NOT allowed to fly through an alert area. (B/1/4)
5. Potential energy is directly related to ______while kinetic energy is directly related to ______. (B/2/1)
c. altitude, airspeed
6. Which aircraft has the highest TOTAL energy? (B/2/2)
b. Altitude: 17,000 feet MSL, Airspeed: 150 KIAS
(Highest Alt + Airspeed)
7. Trading kinetic to potential energy is also called ______. (B/2/3)
d. trading airspeed for altitude
8. Which condition results in the greatest energy loss? (B/2/4)
d. 4 G dive recovery at idle power
10. Using the energy trade rule (50/1000) and the concept of equivalent energy levels, select the lowest total energy state. (B/3/2)
A. 10,000 feet MSL and 110 KIAS
B. 7000 feet MSL and 200 KIAS
C. 6500 feet MSL and 250 KIAS
D. 9000 feet MSL and 150 KIAS
B. 7000 feet MSL and 200 KIAS
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
11. A maneuver that results in no net change in energy level (energy state) is called ______. (B/3/3)
b. energy neutral
12. What is the working energy level for a MOA area which has a floor at 6000 feet MSL and a ceiling of 12,000 feet MSL? (B/3/4)
b. 9000 feet MSL/180-200 KIAS
13. What is the starting point for the area orientation decision process? (B/3/5)
b. Knowing where you are
14. What is the first step you need to take in order to compensate for winds in your working area? (B/3/6)
c. Know the winds at altitude for your area.
15. Normally, the primary reference for area orientation within a working area is ______. (B/3/7)
b. ground references near the geographical center of the area or identifiable landmarks on the borders or outside the area if central references are not available.
16. An area profile and a mission profile are the same. (B/3/8)
Area Profile - The sequence of maneuvers will be performed in working area
Mission Profile - Outline of the sequence of events from step to post-landing
17. How much altitude is required to safely perform a spin recovery? (B/4/1)
b. 1000 feet above, 3500 feet below
18. What is the entry airspeed for a landing attitude stall? (B/4/2)
a. 5-10 KIAS above approach speed
19. Slow flight is an ______ maneuver. (B4/3)
- b. energy neutral
- c. energy losing
20. You planned to do a high area profile and enter at the bottom of the area. Your planned area profile was power-on stalls, nose-high recovery, nose-low recovery, ELP stalls, and slow flight. However, while on departure you are assigned a low area. Your departure and recovery routing forces you to enter and leave at the top of your new area. Which of the modified profiles below will allow you to work into the low area altitude block? (B/4/4)
d. ELP stalls, nose-low recovery, nose-high recovery, power-on stalls, slow flight
1. Which of the following statements concerning energy trade is TRUE?
c. Kinetic energy can be traded for potential energy by putting the aircraft in a climb.
2. Putting the T-6A in a dive at full power with the horizon on the front canopy bow will gain approximately ______ knots of indicated airspeed for every ______ feet of altitude.
c. 50; 1000
3. Which maneuver(s) below would be classified as energy losing?
- a. OCF recovery
- c. Traffic pattern stalls
4. Which maneuver below would be classified as energy gaining?
b. Power-on stalls
5. Using the T-6A dive rule (dive with full power and horizon on front canopy bow 50/1000) which energy level is roughly equivalent to 10,000 feet MSL and 160 KIAS?
c. 11,000 feet MSL and 110 KIAS
6. Which in-flight planning concept tells you where to do an area maneuver?
a. Area orientation
7. Which of the following is NOT an in-flight planning concept?
c. Configuration management
8. A maneuver that ends at a higher altitude and higher airspeed than at entry is an ______maneuver.
b. energy gaining
9. How much altitude is required to complete a traffic pattern stall series?
d. 2500 feet below
10. Which of the following is NOT an area orientation concept?
d. Knowing the surface winds for your area
11. You should try to maneuver ______ your area center reference when compensating for winds.
b. upwind from
12. The basic working energy level for area work in the T-6A is ______.
c. the middle of the area altitude block at 180-200 KIAS
13. Potential energy is directly related to airspeed.
14. Staying within your assigned working area ______ traffic conflicts with other aircraft.
1. What causes an aircraft to stall? What are some indications of a stall? (B/1/1)
1. Exceeding the stall (critical) AOA. Stall indications are stalled AOA, stick shaker/buffet, and loss of control effectiveness in order of ailerons, elevator, and rudder.
2. What pitch and power settings are used to enter a power-on stall? When do you recover? (B/1/2)
2. 15-30° nose-low, 30-40° nose-high, and 30-60% torque. Use 20-30° of bank, if turning. Recover when you get unplanned nose drop and uncommanded rolling motion.
3. What is the purpose of the traffic pattern stall series? When do you recover from a traffic pattern stall? (B/1/3)
a. Purpose of traffic pattern stall series is to teach early recognition and proper recovery.
b. Recover at the approach-to-stall indication.
4. What are the entry procedures for a break stall recovery? (simulator only) (B/1/4)
a. Set power to maintain 200 KIAS
b. Retard PCL to 10% torque and roll into 60º bank turn
c. Increase bank and back pressure until approach-to-stall indication is recognized
5. What are the recovery procedures for an undershooting (nose-high) final turn stall? (B/1/5)
- a. Reduce back stick pressure to decrease AOA
b. Advance PCL to MAX
c. Use coordinated rudder and ailerons to level the wings
d. Minimize altitude loss
e. Safely regain aircraft control and establish a positive climb
6. What are the entry procedures for an overshooting (nose-low) final turn stall? (B/1/6)
a. Configure and establish 120 KIAS
b. Initiate normal final turn
c. Increase bank, backpressure, and retard PCL to IDLE
d. Continue turn until approach-to-stall indication
7. What are the entry procedures for a landing attitude stall? (B/1/7)
a. Establish a simulated final approach at 5 to 10 knots above final approach airspeed commensurate with flap setting
b. Reduce power to IDLE
c. Execute normal roundout
d. Hold landing attitude until approach-to-stall indication.
8. What is the entry procedure for the closed pullup stall? (simulator only) (B/1/8)
a. Establish 140 KIAS
b. Roll and pull to simulate over-aggressive closed pattern until the approach-to-stall indication is recognized
9. What is the primary cause of decaying airspeed in the emergency landing pattern? (B/1/9)
Poor glide attitude control due to
a. Pilot distraction with emergency situation
b. Runway fixation
10. What is inverted flight? (B/2/1)
Any flight condition with greater than 90° of pitch or bank, may be in level flight, nose-high, or nose-low
11. Describe flight conditions that require a nose-low recovery. (B/2/2)
a. Nose too far below the horizon to safely continue the maneuver
b. Nose below the horizon with too much airspeed to safely continue the maneuver
c. Present maneuver will take you out of the bottom of your assigned airspace or into clouds
d. Aircraft malfunction
12. Which way do you roll during a nose-low recovery? (B/2/3)
Roll in the shortest direction upright toward the most sky
13. Describe some situations that would require a nose-high recovery. (B/2/4)
a. Insufficient airspeed to continue the maneuver
c. Present maneuver will take you out of the top of your assigned airspace or into clouds
d. Aircraft malfunction
14. Under what conditions should you perform an out-of-control flight recovery? (B/2/5)
- a. Low/rapidly dissipating airspeed
- 1) Stick shaker vibration
- 2) Aircraft buffeting
b. Disorienting nose-high situations
15. What causes an out-of-control flight (OCF) condition? What are the types of OCF? (B/3/1)
a. Stall combined with yaw which results in the aircraft not responding properly to control inputs
- b. Types of OCF
- 1) Poststall gyrations
- 2) Incipient spins
- 3) Steady-state spins
16. What are the indications of a poststall gyration? (B/3/2)
- a. Loss of control effectiveness
- b. Stalled or near-stalled AOA with stick shaker activated
- c. Transient or erratic airspeed indications
- d. Random turn needle indications
17. What is an incipient spin? What cockpit indication can you use to confirm that the aircraft is in an incipient spin rather than a poststall gyration? (B/3/3)
a. Incipient spin is the transition from a poststall gyration to a steady state spin.
b. Turn needle fully deflected in the direction of rotation
18. What maneuvers are prohibited in the T-6A? (B/3/4)
- a. Inverted stalls
- b. Inverted spins
- c. Aggravated spins past two turns
- d. Spins with PCL above IDLE
- e. Spins with landing gear, flaps or speed brake extended
- f. Spins with PMU off
- g. Spins below 10,000 feet pressure altitude
- h. Spins above 22,000 feet pressure altitude
- i. Abrupt cross-controlled (snap) maneuvers
- j. Aerobatic maneuvers, spins, or stalls with a fuel imbalance greater than 50 pounds between wings
- k. Tail slides
19. When is the PCL set to IDLE during a practice OCF entry? (B/3/5)
Prior to applying rudder
20. For both practice and inadvertent OCF entries, what should you check before performing the recoveryprocedure? (B/3/6)
AOA, turn needle, and airspeed
21. What are the indications of a steady-state erect spin? (B/3/7)
a. Sustained yaw rate
b. AOA at or above 18 units, with stick shaker
c. Turn needle fully deflected in direction of spin
d. Approximately 60º nose low
e. 2 to 3 seconds per turn
f. VSI pegged at 6000 fpm descent (400 to 500 feet per turn)
g. Airspeed stabilized at 120 – 135 KIAS
22. What is the entry procedure for a practice erect spin? (B/3/8)
- a. Clear the area above and below the aircraft
- b. Ensure proper altitude and cloud clearances
- c. Complete pre-stalling, spinning and aerobatic checks
- d. Reduce power to idle and gradually increase pitch to maintain level-to-slightly-climbing 1 G flight
- e. At spin entry airspeed (approximately 80 KIAS): Smoothly apply back stick to maintain pitch attitude / Apply full rudder in desired spin direction
- f. Pitch attitude at entry should be approximately 15 to 40 degrees nose high
- g. Make sure to use full stick and rudder travel
- h. Hold controls firmly against stops with ailerons neutral
23. What are the characteristics of an inverted spin? (B/3/9)
a. 30° nose low
b. Zero units AOA
c. Turn needle fully deflected
d. Airspeed 40 KIAS
e. –1.5 Gs on accelerometer
24. What is the inverted spin recovery procedure? (B/3/10)
a. Gear, flaps and speed brake – Retracted
b. PCL – IDLE
c. Rudder – Full opposite to turn needle deflection
d. Control Stick – Aft of neutral with ailerons neutral (full aft stick may be used)
e. Smoothly recover to level flight after rotation stops
25. How can you determine that you are in a spiral instead of a steady-state spin? How do you recover from a spiral? (B/3/11)
a. AOA will not indicate a stall and airspeed steadily increases in a spiral.
b. Execute Inadvertent Departure from Controlled Flight boldface
c. Ejection recommended if encountering spiral below 6000 feet AGL and recovery not imminent
26. What are some reasons to remain within assigned airspace? (B/4/1)
a. Regulatory – Complies with ATC clearance or course rules
b. Safety – Minimizes traffic conflicts
c. Airmanship – Develops in-flight planning and situational awareness skills
27. The T-6A will gain approximately 50 KIAS per 1000 feet of altitude with the PCL at MAX in a _______ dive. (B/4/2)
b. Use this rule to determine how the aircraft’s total external energy state changes
28. What are the three energy classifications for maneuvers and give an example maneuver for each category? (B/4/3)
a. Energy gainers – Power-on stalls
b. Energy neutral – Slow flight
c. Energy loser – Traffic pattern stalls
29. What is the basic working energy level for area maneuvering in a T-6A? What does it allow you to do in the area? (B/4/4)
a. Middle of the altitude block and 180-200 KIAS
b. Allows you to set up and perform any permissible maneuver and remain within the working area altitude block
30. What principle is used to develop an area profile before flight? (B/4/5)
The principle of energy management
a. Initial profile development is based on planned working area, entry, required maneuvers, and area exit
b. Area profiles should allow smooth maneuver flow while maintaining the working energy level
31. What things do you need to know to maintain area orientation? (B/4/6)
a. Where you are
b. Area boundaries
c. Flight paths and energy characteristics of planned maneuvers
d. Winds at altitude
1. What are the recovery procedures for a power-on stall?
- a. Simultaneously:
- 1) Use stick forces as necessary to reduce AOA
- 2) Smoothly advance PCL to maximum
- 3) Apply coordinated rudder and aileron to level wings
b. As flying speed and positive control pressure is regained recover with minimum altitude loss without encountering a secondary stall
c. The maneuver is complete when a positive climb is established
2. How do you recover from an approach to stall while configured and on final in the traffic pattern?
- a. Reduce back stick pressure
- b. Apply full power
- c. Maintain normal landing/TO picture until positively and safely climbing
- d. Anticipate the aircraft settling to the runway before recovery and a positive climb is achieved
3. What is the airspeed range for practice slow flight?
80 – 85 KIAS
4. What are the procedures for a nose-high recovery?
a. Advance the PCL to MAX and roll(1st) and pull to nearest horizon without stalling
b. Return to straight-and-level flight as the aircraft approaches the horizon with safe flying airspeed
5. How do you perform a nose-low recovery?
a. Reduce power and extend the speed brake, as required
b. Roll in the shortest direction upright and begin to pull up when less than 90° of bank
c. Return to straight-and-level flight.
6. Which way do you roll during an inverted recovery?
Roll in the shortest direction upright toward the most sky.
7. How do you position the control stick and rudder to stop the rotation in an incipient spin?
Neutralize both the stick and rudder as required by the OCF recovery procedure.
8. What are the differences in cockpit instrument indications between an erect and an inverted spin?
- a. Erect spin
- 1) AOA at or above 18 units, with stick shaker activated
- 2) Stabilized airspeed 120 – 135 KIAS
- 3) Positive Gs indicated on the accelerometer
- 4) Pitch approximately 60º nose low
- b. Inverted spin
- 1) AOA indicates zero
- 2) Airspeed 40 KIAS
- 3) Negative Gs indicated on the accelerometer (-1.5 Gs)
- 4) Pitch approximately 30º nose low
9. How can you determine that you are in a spiral instead of a spin?
In a spiral AOA will not indicate a stall and airspeed will be steadily increasing.
10. What is the entry power setting for a stability demonstration?
11. What is the working energy level for an area with a floor of 10,000 feet MSL and a ceiling of 16,000feet MSL?
13,000 MSL and 180-200 KIAS
12. You entered a maneuver at 12,000 feet MSL and 230 KIAS and completed it at 14,000 feet MSL and 110 KIAS. Did this maneuver gain, maintain, or lose energy?
Lost 20 KIAS or 400 feet of energy.
a. 12,000 MSL/230 KIAS is equivalent to 14,000/130 KIAS
b. 20 KIAS is worth 400 feet using the T-6A energy trade rule
13. You are entering a working area at the top of its altitude block and 200 KIAS. What energy category maneuver would you do first to get to the middle of the altitude block?