Card Set Information
the capacity to do work
energy of positioned/stored energy
energy of motion/active energy
for work to be done, potential energy must be ?
converted to kinetic energy
forms of energy all have?
forms of energy?
electrons moving around
store potential energy in high energy electrons
energy can convert light into _____ and chemical into ____
example of electrical energy?
energy conversion rules
first law of thermodynamic energy
second law of thermodynamics
means temperature change
what does the first law of thermodynamics state?
energy cannot be created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics states?
all energy conversions result in an increase in entropy
useless energy that is no longer capable of doing work
____ always increase
when does entropy increase?
when order goes to disorder
electrons gain potential energy by ?
being pushed to an elevated energy from ground state
potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as the?
excited/energized electron falls back to its ground state
energy released can be used to do?
the loss of an electron?
the acquisition of an electron?
oxidation and reduction reactions always?
with oxidation and reducation, energy can be stored in ? and release to ?
highly reduced molecules
do work by oxidizing these molecules
carry energetic electrons when reduced and become oxidized when these electrons are used to reduce another molecule
high energy electron carriers (HEEC)
small, high energy molecule that contains packet of energy
energy storage/transport is what kind of reaction?
to make ATP it is an ?
takes more energy to make ____ then it gets out of it
what is the biological solution to the 2nd law?
used light energy to drive the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate (CH20)
photosynthetic reactions =
light reactions +dark reactions
carbon dioxide + water -----> carbohydrate + oxygen
plants have a battery of pigments that can absorb visible light known as?
energy conversions in the light Rx?
light energy--> electrical energy--> chemical energy (ATP and NADPH)
dark reaction part of photosynthesis is a ?
endergonic reaction sequence
tissue inside leaf where photosynthesis happens?
a series of redox reactions that serve to extract energy from the electrons of highly reduced carbon molecules that are ultimately oxidized to CO2 and water
three steps of respiration?
products of glycolysis/glucose
2 Molecules of highly reduced pyruvate
reduced high energy electron carrier
summary of Krebs cycle?
6 molecules of CO2 produced
8 molecules of NADH/FADH
2 molecules of ATP produced
all useful energy left after the Krebs cycle,exists as?
high energy electrons attached to the carriers