bioenergetics

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Author:
melissag94
ID:
250589
Filename:
bioenergetics
Updated:
2013-12-03 22:26:59
Tags:
bio100
Folders:
BIO100
Description:
bioenergetics
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  1. the capacity to do work
    energy
  2. energy of positioned/stored energy
    potential energy
  3. energy of motion/active energy
    kinetic energy
  4. for work to be done, potential energy must be ?
    converted to kinetic energy
  5. forms of energy all have?
    kinetic component
  6. forms of energy?
    • light
    • heat
    • mechanical energy
    • electrical energy
    • chemical energy
  7. light?
    photons
  8. heat?
    molecular motion
  9. electrical energy?
    electrons moving around
  10. chemical energy?
    store potential energy in high energy electrons
  11. energy can convert light into _____ and chemical into ____
    • heat
    • mechanical
  12. example of electrical energy?
    outlet
  13. energy conversion rules
    • first law of thermodynamic energy
    • second law of thermodynamics
  14. means temperature change
    thermodynamics
  15. what does the first law of thermodynamics state?
    energy cannot be created nor destroyed
  16. second law of thermodynamics states?
    all energy conversions result in an increase in entropy
  17. useless energy that is no longer capable of doing work
    entropy
  18. ____ always increase
    entropy
  19. when does entropy increase?
    when order goes to disorder
  20. electrons gain potential energy by ?
    being pushed to an elevated energy from ground state
  21. potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as the?
    excited/energized electron falls back to its ground state
  22. energy released can be used to do?
    biological work
  23. the loss of an electron?
    oxidation
  24. the acquisition of an electron?
    reduction
  25. oxidation and reduction reactions always?
    occur together
  26. with oxidation and reducation, energy can be stored in ? and release to ?
    • highly reduced molecules
    • do work by oxidizing these molecules
  27. carry energetic electrons when reduced and become oxidized when these electrons are used to reduce another molecule
    high energy electron carriers (HEEC)
  28. small, high energy molecule that contains packet of energy
    ATP
  29. energy storage/transport is what kind of reaction?
    exergonic
  30. to make ATP it is an ?
    endergonic reaction
  31. takes more energy to make ____ then it gets out of it
    ATP
  32. what is the biological solution to the 2nd law?
    photosynthesis
  33. used light energy to drive the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate (CH20)
    photosynthesis
  34. photosynthetic reactions =
    light reactions +dark reactions
  35. light reactions?
    photochemistry
  36. dark reactions?
    biochemistry
  37. photosynthesis formula?
    carbon dioxide + water -----> carbohydrate + oxygen
  38. plants have a battery of pigments that can absorb visible light known as?
    chlorophyll A
  39. photosynthesis reduces?
    CO2
  40. respiration oxidizes?
    CO2
  41. energy conversions in the light Rx?
    light energy--> electrical energy--> chemical energy (ATP and NADPH)
  42. dark reaction part of photosynthesis is a ?
    endergonic reaction sequence
  43. tissue inside leaf where photosynthesis happens?
    mesophyll
  44. undoes photosynthesis?
    respiration
  45. a series of redox reactions that serve to extract energy from the electrons of highly reduced carbon molecules that are ultimately oxidized to CO2 and water
    respiration
  46. three steps of respiration?
    • glycolysis
    • Krebs cycle
    • electron transport
  47. products of glycolysis/glucose
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 Molecules of highly reduced pyruvate
  48. reduced high energy electron carrier
    NADH
  49. summary of Krebs cycle?
    • 6 molecules of CO2 produced
    • 8 molecules of NADH/FADH
    • 2 molecules of ATP produced
  50. all useful energy left after the Krebs cycle,exists as?
    high energy electrons attached to the carriers

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