BIOS 100 Endocrine and Nervous

Card Set Information

Author:
airjavi
ID:
250600
Filename:
BIOS 100 Endocrine and Nervous
Updated:
2013-12-03 23:12:06
Tags:
BIOS 100 Endocrine Nervous
Folders:
BIOS,100,Endocrine,and,Nervous
Description:
BIOS 100 Endocrine and Nervous
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user airjavi on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The nervous system is the fast but expensive system
    The endocrine system (hormones) is the slow but cheap system. What are pros and cons for each.
    Each hormone affects only a select set of cells, known as a hormone’s target cells. Hormones can take from several seconds to several hours to work, but then can continue to have effects for extended periods of time.
  2. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of how a protein/amino acid derivative hormone functions vs how a steroid hormone functions
    • Each amino acid-based hormone is derived from a chemical modification of a single amino acid. Amino-acid-based and peptide hormones generally link to their target cells via receptors that protrude from the target cells’ outer or plasma membranes.
    • Steroid hormones generally pass through acell’s plasma membrane and bind with a receptor protein inside the cell.
    • The combined steroid hormone/receptor molecule then binds with the cell’s DNA, thus turning on one or more cell genes, which results in the production of one or more proteins.
  3. Know that the same hormone can have different effects on different types of target cells
    •The endocrine system regulates bodily processes through hormones: substances secreted by one set of cells that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of other cells.
  4. Know the various components of the nervous system (CNS, PNS, sensory systems, motor systems, somatic systems, autonomic systems, etc)
    • The central nervous system (CNS), consisting of the brain and spinal cord
    • The peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the neural tissue outside the CNS plus the sensory organs
    • –afferent division, which brings sensory information to the CNS (i.e. sensory input) –efferent division, which carries action (motor) commands to the body’s “effectors”—muscles and glands.
    • –somatic nervous system, which provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles.
    • autonomic nervous system, which provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  5. The autonomic system is further divided. ompare and contrast the sympathetic nervous system vs the parasympathetic nervous system
    • –sympathetic division, which generally has stimulatory effects
    • parasympathetic division, which generally facilitates routine maintenance activities
  6. Know what happens when a nerve fires - what happens when the neuron depolarizes and what happens when it repolarizes
    • This influx of ions at an initial point on the axon triggers reactions that cause the adjacent portion of the axonal membrane to initiate the same influx of ions.
    • Thus, a conducted nerve impulse, called an action potential, moves down the entire axon in a set of linked reactions.
    • A nerve signal moves from one neuron to another across a synapse.
    • This includes a “sending” neuron, a “receiving” cell, and a tiny gap between the two cells, called a synaptic cleft.
  7. Know what the resting potential of a neuron is (-70 mV)  More importantly, know that the inside of a neuron is negative relative to the outside.  How did it get this way?
    Nerve signal transmission begins when, upon stimulation, some protein channels open up, allowing a movement of positively charged sodium ions (Na+) into the cell. For a brief time, the interior of the cell becomes positively charged at this location. On either side of this location, however, the interior     of the cell remains negatively charged.     Attracted by this negative charge, the Na+ ions move laterally in both directions from their point of entry.
  8. Know what the resting potential of a neuron is (-70 mV)  More importantly, know that the inside of a neuron is negative relative to the outside.  How did it get this way?
    The Na+ gates close and the gates for     positively charged potassium ions (K+) open up, allowing a movement of K+ out of the cell. With this, there is once again a net positive charge outside the membrane. Meanwhile, the arrival of the charged Na+ ions “downstream" from their original point of entry triggers an influx of Na+ ions at the next Na+ channel.
  9. Know what the resting potential of a neuron is (-70 mV)  More importantly, know that the inside of a neuron is negative relative to the outside.  How did it get this way?
    Through repetition of this process, the     nerve signal is then propagated one way along the axon. Given that Na+ ions move laterally in both directions from their original point of entry, why isn’t the signal propagated in both directions? Because once an Na+ channel has opened, it enters a brief period in which it cannot respond to any additional stimulus. Thus, each “upstream”     Na+ channel remains briefly closed, while each “downstream” channel is opened in succession.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview