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Where in the body do you find mucous membranes that secrete fluids?
- - Genitourny tract - most secretion
- - Gastrointestinal Tract
Where does chemical digestion occur (what organs of the body?)
Stomach and Small intestines
What is BMI? - Body mass index
- o What does a high or low BMI indicate?
- - Low: malnutrition
- -High: obesity
What is the relationship between albumin and nutrition (malnutrition)?
Low albumin = malnutrition
NPO - nothing by mouth
- - no diet
- - surgery, upper respiration, resection of colon
CL - clear liquid diet
- - No residue
- - Post Operation, severe diarrhea
Full liquid -
Transition diet after a clear liquid diet, more nutritionally complete than clear liquid, still lacking iron, zinc and fiber
intermediate diet when a patient is progressing from pureed to regular
regular diet in a blender
- - hypertension, water retention and edema
- -congestive heart failure
- - protein shake, meat, cheese
- - build and repair tissue
- - severe burn, surgery
Low cholesterol (difference between LDL and HDL, how do you lower or raise either one of those?
- HDL- Good , LDL- Bad
- o Low or no tyramine
- - Tyramine occurs widely in plant and animals, metabolize monoamine oxidase
- - Produced by decarboxylation of the tyrosine during fermentation
- - Intermediate product in the conversion of tyrosine to epinephrine
- - Tyramine is found in most cheeses and in beer, broad bean, pods yeast wine and chicken liver
- -CAUTION: When persons taking certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors ear there foods, they may experience severe hypertension, headache, palpitation, neck pain, and perhaps intracranial hemorrhage
Weight reduction -
reduce fats, carbs
American Diabetic Association
Complete proteins -
contains all 9 essential amino acid in sufficient quantity and ratio
High calcium -
Repair of bone damage and injuries
High potassium -
may help in blood pressure control , patient taking diuretic, esp non- retaining K+
Low residue -
similar to soft diet, without milk and milk products
Vitamin K (what are signs of low Vit K?) -
Hemorrhage, Increase prothrombin (plasma protein coagulation factor synthesized by the liver)
Vitamin A (what are signs oflow Vit A?) -
night blindness, bad vision, increased infection
Vitamin B (what are signs oflow Vit B?)-
cracking on the sides of the lips
Low calcium (what are the signs of low calcium?) -
osteoporosis, weak or more porous bone, stunted growth in children
diet made up of mainly plant food
fruits vegetables, milk and dairy products
Fish oils (what happens if you take too many?) -
What is the LVN scope of practice (what are you allowed to do and not allowed to do) with new admissions or new transfers from facility to facility?
Can do vital signs, health history, and med list
What is the LVN scope of practice (what are you allowed to do and not allowed to do) for discharging a patient? Discharge education?
can assist in packing up and education and discharge of patient with RN
What is an LVN scope of practice in assisting an RN with an initial assessment, whether at a clinic, hospital or home health environment?
- (List the tasks the LVN may do).
- Can do vital signs, health history, and med list
Are LVN's allowed to perform an initial assessment on a patient transferred from surgery (post-op pt)?
LVN’s are not allowed to perform initial assessment on a patient transferred from surgery
What are the interventions and rationale for those interventions, for a client who is bedridden, related to:
- o Nutrition- protein and water ; promote healing
- o Activity - turn every 2 hours, keep dry, ROM - prevent skin impairment
- o Level of consciousness - assess confusion and environment
- o Fluids/electrolytes - calcium for hypocalcemia and edema
What do you do following a bath with an elderly patient for skin integrity? (2 things)
- Dry and moisturize
What happens anatomically as an adult ages in relation to the weight ofthe body?
- - Upper torso gets heavier
- - butt gets smaller
- - Risk for fall
What are all of the elements on a prescription? What if an LVN takes an order and an element is missing?
- -Parts of a prescription
- 1.) The physician’s name, address, telephone number, and registration number
- 2.) the clients name , address and the date on which the prescription is written
- 3.) the superscription that includes the symbol Rx
- 4.) The inscription that includes the names and quantities of ingredients to be included in medication
- 5.) The subscription that gives directions to the pharmacist for filling the prescription
What is the nurse's role if a client refuses medication? What do you say to the client? How do you document?
Ask why, and document refusal