PHRD5015 Lecture 20: Causes of Tumors

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daynuhmay
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250614
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PHRD5015 Lecture 20: Causes of Tumors
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2013-12-04 02:37:48
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Causes Tumors
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Causes of Tumors
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  1. strong evidence supports the notion that malignant tumors develop from...
    benign tumors
  2. Ames Test
    test to see if carcinogens are also mutagens
  3. mutants that have recovered the function that they were genetically modified to have lost
    revertants
  4. modified Ames Test
    carcinogen incubated with liver homogenate to become activated before being added to bacterial plate
  5. a chemical that has little mutagenic potential before biotransformation
    procarcinogen
  6. final product that causes cancer
    ultimate carcinogen
  7. process that causes conversion from a procarcinogen to an ultimate carcinogen
    detoxification
  8. carcinogens that are non mutagens
    tumor promotors
  9. function of mutagenic chemicals
    alter DNA structure
  10. papilloma
    benign tumor
  11. in the skin cancer model, what was theĀ tumor initiator?
    DMBA
  12. in the skin cancer model, what was theĀ tumor promoter?
    PMA
  13. creates a mutation that renders the cell capable of proliferation
    tumor initiator
  14. drives proliferation of a cell that has undergone a mutation that renders the cell capable of proliferation
    tumor promotor
  15. when a papilloma becomes independent of the tumor promoter
    progression
  16. PMA activates ___
    PKC
  17. what is PMA a mimic of?
    DAG (diacyl glycerol)
  18. estimated rate of mutation
    10-6 per generation
  19. result of DMBA's first mutation
    permanently activated Ras
  20. result of DMBA's second mutation
    mutation in p53
  21. what is necessary to increase the probability that one of the cells will get the second mutation?
    expansion of cells containing the first mutation
  22. protein that connects many pathways and is activated in many cancers
    Ras
  23. how many copies of an oncogene need to be mutated to affect the cell?
    only ONE
  24. how many copies of a tumor suppressor gene must be mutated to affect the cell?
    BOTH
  25. when recombination occurs (2)
    • 1) during fusion of egg & sperm
    • 2) mitosis
  26. quick means by which a cancer cell can eradicate the second copy once the first copy of a tumor suppressor gene is inactivated
    Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH)
  27. 2 ways to create LOH
    • 1) gene conversion (tangled chromosomes confuse DNA pol)
    • 2) allelic deletion
  28. marks chromosomal locations
    G-banding

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