Bloodflow in the veins is aided by skeletal muscle contractions. How is backflow prevented?
By the presence of valves in the veins
}Blood pressure is greater in the incoming capillaries, and this forces fluid out. }Osmotic pressure is greater in the tissue surrounding the outgoing capillaries, and this forces fluid in. The net build up is removed by:
excess fluid is removed by the lymphatic system
what are Bloods two primary components:
Formed elements are blood cells and cell fragments.
Blood plasma is the fluid portion of blood in which the formed elements are suspended.
Types of formed elements are:
red blood cells
white blood cell
}Red blood cells carry oxygen to, and carbon dioxide from, every part of the body. What about white blood cells and platelets
White blood cells are central to the immune system
}Platelets are small fragments of cells that are important in the blood-clotting process.
Three primary classes of plasma proteins ARE:
Albumins, which transport hormones and fatty acids.
Fibrinogen, which aids in blood clotting.
Globulins, which aid the immune system and serve as transport proteins.
Two transport proteins are important in the health of the heart
(LDLs) carry lipids to bodily tissues from the liver and small intestines. These are the “bad fats”
(HDLs) carry lipids from these tissues to the liver. These are the “good fats”
Cause of a heart attack.
}A heart attack occurs when this process results in the complete blockage of a coronary artery, which cuts off the blood supply to groups of cells within the heart, thus killing them.
Explain LDL heart attack process.
LDL molecules infiltrate the wall of the artery; immune cells follow.
An inflammatory reaction follows; a growing number of cells and cellular debris form a plaque.
Plaque cap ruptures, sending plaque material into bloodstream; a blood clot forms that blocks blood flow.
Functions of respiratory system.
Capture oxygen and dispose CO2.
Aids in controlling pH balance in bloodstream and produces sound to speak.
Components of Respiratory
◦the lungs, the nose, nasal cavity, and sinuses the pharynx (upper throat)◦the larynx (voice box)◦the trachea (windpipe)◦the conducting passageways, called bronchi and bronchioles, that lead to the lungs
}Respiration can be defined as the exchange of gases between the atmosphere outside the body and the cells within it. How is this exchange made.
surface area of the alveoli and their associated capillaries is used for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Step for respiration begins }breathing or ventilation, meaning the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs. What are other steps?
oxygen diffuses across the thin wall of an alveolus into an adjacent capillary and binds with hemoglobin protein in red blood cells.
}Oxygen then moves with the blood cells to the heart.
}The heart pumps the blood to body tissues, where the oxygen diffuses into the interstitial fluid and then into nearby cells.
}The carbon dioxide produced in the body’s cells moves into nearby capillaries, to be carried to the lungs.
All the oxygen loaded into redblood cells binds initially with
}Hemoglobin has a great capacity to bind to carbon monoxide as well as to oxygen.