Exercise Physio LAB 2.txt

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  1. What is meant by the term "anaerobic threshold" ?
    The transition from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production as workload increases.

    • AnT is the last oxygen uptake rate value (VO2) fitting the linear trend when expired ventilation rate (VE) in liters per minute (L/min) is plotted against VO2 in liter per minute (L/min)
  2. Methods of Identifying AnT
    (1) identification of breakaway or greater than linear increase in VE when VE is plotted against VO2 or workload: often referred to as VENTILLARY THRESHOLD

    - note that VO2 as well as heart rate increase linearly or proportionally as workload increases and do not have a  breakaway or greater than linear increase as workload increases

    (2) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in lactic acid production rate when lactic acid production rate is plotted against VO2 or workload

    - often referred to as lactate threshold or onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)

    (3) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in carbon dioxide production rate when carbon dioxide production is plotted against VO2 or workload

    (4) a peaking-out in the fraction (%) of carbon dioxide in the expired air (FECO2) and a bottoming-out in the fraction (%) of oxygen in the expired air (FEO2) as workload increases

    (5) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 12-16 (i.e., hard)

    • VO2 has linear increase
    • VCO2 has linear increase
    • RER has linear increase
    • VE has breakaway at AnT
    • HR has linear increase
  3. What is meant by the term maximal oxygen uptake rate?
    also known as VO2 Max

    The maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute (1/min or ml/kg/min).

    It is the highest VO2 value achieved during a graded maximal effort exercise test.
  4. Methods of Identifying VO2 Max
    (1) plateau (+ or - 2 ml/kg/min) or decrease in VO2 as workload increases

    (2) heart rate is within 10 beats per minute (bpm) of age-predicted maximal heart rate, which is estimated to be 220 minus ago in years for land-based leg exercise

    (3) R or RER value (i.e., respiratory exchange ratio) equal to or greater than 1.0

    (4) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 18-20 (i.e., very, very hard)
  5. Why and how are cardiorespiratory endurace (maximal oxygen uptake rate), pulmonary (lung) volumes/function, body composition, and body building important for athletic performance and/or fitness and health?
    Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the lungs and heart to talk in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to the working muscles, allowing activities that involve large muscle masses to be performed over long periods of time

    A person with better cardiorespiratory endurance will be able to perform better due to an increase in blood flow, as well as the transportation of oxygen from the blood to the muscle tissue due to the heart and lungs being more effective.
  6. What factors tend to influence body composition?
    (1) sex or gender

    (2) age

    (3) athlete vs. non-athlete

    (4) race/ethnicity

    (5) statistical consideration
  7. What are the benefits of exercise in a weight control program?
    - increased cumulative caloric expenditure

    - counteracts potential decrease in basal metabolic rate typically associated with aging by maintaining or increase lean body weight

    - prevents loss of lean body weight associated with caloric restriction

    - compliments behavior modification and establishment of a more healthy lifestyle
  8. What are the causes of regulatory obesity?
    (1) lack of daily physical activity

    (2) excess caloric consumption due to easy availability of food

    (3) association of food with emotional responses

    (4) social and cultural pressures of food consumption
  9. Know and understand in detail the various exercise and weight control concepts covered on (10-11 & 10-12)
    Caloric Consumption

    If negative, weight loss

    If positive, weight gain
  10. How can underweightness and overweightness be identified?
    Overweightness can be indicated by a body fat % of over 25% for males and 30% for females.

    Having a body fat % of under 15% for females and less than 10% for males can be indentified as underweightness.

    This is more difficult to identify because peak athletic performance may be at body fat % of less than those percentages.

    Mostly using the normal values from reference weight to see what is accepted weight for a given frame size.
  11. What are the two components of body composition?
    Fat mass

    Lean body mass
  12. What are the density of the two components in relationship to the density of water?
    Density of water is around 1.0

    Fat is less dense than water, therefore it will float

    Lean body mass or muscle mass is more dense than water, therefore it will sink
  13. *Know and understand in detail the relationship between body weight, body volume, body density, and percent body fat
    Body weight - weight on land measured by a scale

    Body volume - (weight in air - weight in water)

    Body density - body weight/body volume

    Percent body fat -  4.57/body density - 4.142 x 100%
  14. *Known and understand how to perform underwater weighing as well as how to calculate body volume, body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body weight, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected on land and during the underwater weighing process
    Calculate lean body weight: BW - FW

    - this will give you body fat %, then multiply by total body weight to find lean body mass

    Calculate ideal body weight goal: current lean body weight/desired LBW expressed as a decimal

    Calculate fat weight: BW x (%BF/100)

    To perform underwater weighing, have the person take their nearest weight to .35 lbs and then you will test the subject 3 times having them expire all of their air as they are going under the water to achieve their ideal underwater weight. Use the values to find body fat percentages.
  15. What is Archimedes Principle? How does it relate to underwater weighing?
    Archimedes Principle states that an object submerged in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the volume of water displaced and that the volume of water displaced is equal to the weight lost by an object immersed in water.

    In body composition determination, the specific gravity of lean body mass is 1.1 kg/L and the specific gravity of fat mass is .9 kf/L.

    In underwater weighing conditions, body volume is basically equal to weight in air minus weight in water and body density is equal to body weight divided by body volume.
  16. Know and understand how to perform anthropometric measurements as well as how to calculate body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected from anthropometric skinfold and circumference measurements.
    In order to perform skin fold measurements, you need to pinch the skin and have the device settle before taking the measurement.

    It needs to be within .5 of the same number or more reads to be taken.

    Look to see if there are differences in calculating skin fold values compared to underwater weighing and cirucmferences
  17. Know and understand the sources of error for submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometry testing, pulmonary testing, underwater weighing for determination of body composition, and anthropometric testing for determination of body composition and build
    Submax test source of error is a possible non linear increase, HR reading and also accurate measure of work

    Pulmonary testing - room for error may be limited inability to maximally inspire or expire

    Underwater weighing - may be error in ability to release all the air from the lungs and achieve a true underwater weight

    Anthropomorphic measures - sites of measurement may be different for all individuals. The pinching method may not be as accurate for inexperienced individuals
  18. What factors should be used in selecting an anthropometric equation for estimating body composition?
    (1) Gender or Sex

    (2) Age

    (3) Athlete or Non-Athlete (active vs. non-active)

    (4) Ethnicity or Race

    (5) Statistical Considerations
  19. What tissues are primarily assessed by skinfolds, circumferences, and diameters?
    Skinfold - fat tissue

    Circumference - fat tissue, bone tissue and lean body tissue

    Diameters - usually bone
  20. What are the units of measurement for skinfolds, circumferences and diameters?
    Circumferences to the nearest .1 cm

    Diameters to the nearest .1 cm

    Skinfolds to the nearest .5 mm
  21. Know and understand the three general models that underlie anthropometric equations used for estimating body composition.
    Somatogram - to understand if portions of the body are proportional to one another

    Somatotype - identifies an individual based on body type


    - endomorph: measured fatness uses all skinfolds

    - mesomorphy: measures muscularity uses skinfolds circumferences, diameters and height and average of left and right sides

    - ectomorphy: think and lankey, uses height and body weight to determine linearity

    Reference weight - determines the amount of body weight an individual should have based on norms from people of that skeletal frame size
  22. Know and understand in detail the measurements, calculations, and interpretation of results of body build evaluations from a somatogram, somatotyping, and reference weight.
    Somatogram: uses circumferences of both the left and right extremity to measure the proportions of body weight to frame size. Uses bone (B), fat (C) and muscle (D) to determine relationships. Measurements are taken from different areas and then divided by the segmental constant. This is then compared to the total body value and then you can get the proportional score. The score is then plotted to the somatogram chart. A score from 95-105 is within the normal range

    Somatotyping: uses three different measures to identify the makeup of the body's build by its characteristics. The results are then plotted on a continuum. For the results of each category, you must find the corresponding number and plot the answer. The answers correlate to the three diferent components. 1-3 is low, 4-6 is moderate and 7-9 is high.

    Reference Weight: take the diameter for all of the areas listed on the chart then divide the total body height in CM by the body constant for either males or females. To find A, square this value. Continue the calculations to find the reference weight and how many KG overweight the individual is. Normal weight is within 5KG of reference weight. Underweight is more than 5KG below. Overweight is more then 5KG above.
  23. Know and understand how reference weight can be used in conjunction with body composition analysis to change fat weight and lean body weight.
    Body composition will indicate the amounts of fat and lean mass a person has.

    Reference weight will tell the person how much weight they should have.

    Use the equation for current lean body weight/desired lean body weight expressed as a decimal to identify the changes in lean body weight and fat mass
  24. *What are the primary body build characteristics described by ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic body somatotype ratings?
    ectomorphic - tallness and thinness

    endomorphic - fattness

    mesomorphic - muscularity

    somatotype ratings: 1-3 low, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 high
  25. In a somatogram, how are overweightness or under weightness (body weight-frame size relationships), excessrve body fat distribution, and pronounced muscular development identified?
    B is body weight - frame size relationship

    C is excessive or low body fat distribution

    D is pronounced high or low muscularity

    Range of 95-105 percent is normal. Anything above is overweight and below is underweight.
  26. *Know and understand in detail how to administer a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test as well as calculate and interpret the results of a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test.

    (1) set seat height to achieve almost full leg extension on the pedal downstroke and then have the subject establish a pedaling cadence of 50 rpm against "0" kg workload

    (2) at 50 rpm pedal against an initial resistance load for 2 minutes (2 minute work periods)

    -for larger or more highly fit/trained individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 1 kg or 300 kgm/min (300kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 1kg)

    -for smaller, less fit/trained or older individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 0.5 kg or 150 kgm/min (150 kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 0.5 kg)

    (3) take the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the intial workload

    • -heart rate must be greater than or equal to 70% of PHRmax
    • -record the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes at this final, steady-state, workload

    -average the final two heart rates recorded during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes

    -the average of the final two heart rates is the steady-state heart rate at the final steady-state workload

    -final workload is 4 minutes

    (4) note the final steady-state workload and steady-state heart rate, then allow the subject to cool-down against "0" kg of resistance or workload as needed

    (5) calculation of maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2 Max)

    - using the final workload and average steady-state heart rate values, find the preliminary VO2 Max in L/min from the conversion tables (i.e., males on 8-4 and females on 8-5)

    -using the preliminary VO2 Max, adjust the value based on the subject's age. In order to adjust for age, multiple the preliminary VO2 Max by the correction factor for listed

    - using VO2 Max in L/min and body weight (BW), convert VO2 Max in L/min to ml/kg/min.

    - BW in KG = BW in lb divided by 2.2046

    - VO2 Max in ml/min = VO2 Max in L/min multiplied by 1000

    - VO2 max in ml/kg/min = VO2 Max in ml/min divided by BW in KG

    (6) evaluate and classify cardiorespiratory endurance fitness level based on maximal oxygen uptake rate expressed in ml/kg/min using table on 8-3
  27. What are the three assumptions that submaximal leg ergometer tests are based upon?
    no change in lean body weight

    caloric restriction

    endurance cardio program
  28. In terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, how should maximal oxygen uptake rate be expressed?
    VOMax should expressed as ml/kg/min
  29. What is considered to be a high, moderate, or average, and low maximal oxygen uptake rate?

    • 80-90% of HR max
    • 75-85% of HRR
    • 75-85% of VOmax

    • RPE = 15-17 (hard to very hard)
    • Hyperventilatory Response

    • Respiratory Distress (i.e., rapid breathing rate with deep or large breaths)
    • Incapable of passing the "talk test"

    • Duration = 45-60 minutes per session
    • Frequency = 5 days per week


    • 70-80% of HR max
    • 60-75% of HRR
    • 60-75% of VO2 max

    RPE = 13-15 (somewhat hard to hard)

    Aware of ventilation rate (i.e., increase breathing rate and depth)

    • Duration = 30-45 minutes per session
    • Frequency = 4 days per week


    • 60-70% of HR max
    • 50-60% of HRR
    • 50-60% of VO2 max

    • RPE = 11-13 (fairly light to somewhat hard)
    • Unaware of ventilation rate

    • Breathing rate and depth is comfortable
    • Capable of passing the "talk test"

    • Duration = 20-30 minutes per session
    • Frequency = 3 days per week
  30. Know and understand in detail how to asses and calculate pulmonary lung volumes and functions as well as interpret the results of pulmonary (lung) tests.
    Uses the spirometer and measures lung volume and tidal volume, among others to demonstrate inspiration and expiration

    Use the chart based on age and height and sex to determine if the individuals vital capacity falls into the normal range for an idividual after the BTPS correction has been applied
  31. *Know and understand the definitions of the various pulmonary (lung) volumes and capacities. How do the various pulmonary (lung) volumes are capacities change during exercise as well as long-term training?
    All calculations to 2 decimals!

    Tidal volume (TV): volume inspired or expired per breath

    - no change with training

    - increase with exercise

    TV = B - C = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): maximal volume inspired from end inspiration

    - increase with training

    - decrease with exercise

    IRV = C - D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS

    Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): maximal volume expired from end expiration

    - increase with training

    - slight decrease with exercise

    ERV = A - B = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    Residual volume (RV): volume remaining at the end of maximal expiration

    - increase with training

    - slight increase with exercise

    RV = VC x 28% for males, VC x 24% for females

    Total Lung Capacity (TLC): volume in lung at end of maximal inspiration

    - increase with training

    - slight decrease with exercise

    TLC = VC + RV

    Vital Capacity (VC): maximal volume forcefully expired after maximal inspiration

    - increase with training

    - slight decrease with exercise

    VC = A - D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    Inspiratory Capacity (IC): maximal volume inspired from resting expiratory level

    - increase with training

    - increase with exercise

    IC = B - D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
  32. More Pulmonary Lab Calculations
    Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)

    FRC = ERV + RV

    Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV)

    FEV 1.0 = H - D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    % VC1.0 = FEV1.0 / VC

    FEV 2.0 = I - D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    % VC2.0 = FEV2.0 / VC

    FEV 3.0 = J - D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

    % VC3.0 = FEV3.0 / VC

    NOTE: if J is a higher value than A, use J rather than A when calculating VC and ERV
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Exercise Physio LAB 2.txt
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