Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.
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For openness, what are the 6 facets of Costa& McCrae’s Five Factor Model?
- Fantasy (active imagination)
- Aesthetics (artistic interests)
- Feelings (emotionally deep)
- Actions (try new things, curious)
- Ideas (intellectual interests)
- Values (liberal political values)
For openness, what are the four facets if the Ashton& Lee’s HEXACO Model?
- Aesthetic Appreciation (artistic interests)
- Creativity (having good ideas)
- Inquisitiveness (curiosity, love of learning)Unconventionality (being a quirky, off-beat person)
For openness, what are the 2 aspects of DeYoung’s Aspects Model?
- Openness (Creative, into the arts, sensitive to emtions, unconventional)
- Intellect (Intellectual interests, huge vocabulary, curious, love learning)
For the Facebook study, what words where used most often for both high and low open people?
- Low O - can't wait, don't, gud (bad gramamar)
- High O - Universe, art, music, dream.
What are the basic components of Openness?
- Novelty is rewarding
- Likes new, unfamiliar things
- Complexity, uncertainty is appealing & reinforcing
- Low “curiosity threshold”: easily interested & intrigued
Openness is basically what?
T or F: High Open people have better humor?
What types of music do high open people like and dislike?
They typically like unconventional, and unusal kinds of music. They typically dislike "pop" music.
What are the four genres of music that high open people usually like?
Jazz, Blues, Folk, and Classical.
T or F: High O people are more likely to play an instrument?
T or F: High O people are less likely to take music related classes in college?
False, they are more likely to do so.
T or F: High open people spend more hours in the day listening to music?
T or F: High open people are more likely to listen to "inner music" (music in their head) compared to low open people?
High open people have a higher what?
Explain the Raine study of Opennes (at age 3 and 11)...
They found that high curious 3 year olds had higher IQs at age 11.
The high curious 3 year olds also had better school achievement at age 11.
What did the Ziegler study of openness of adults find?
It was a longitudinal study and they found that high openness at the start of the study predicited better intelligence 6 years later.
High open people experience what type of emtion more often?
They experience the "wonder" emotion. The wonder emotion is when you experience awe (chills, goose bumps, crying) when you see something outside of the normal experience (art, music, sunset etc).
What is being inherited with O?
Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4).
What is the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) associated with?
It is associated with novelty seeking (curosity), which is a major aspect of openness.
What variant of the D4DR gene was strongly associated with novelty-seeking & curiosity?
For Agreeableness, what is the Costa & McCrae’s Five Factor Model?
- Trust (trusting, not cynical)
- Straightforward (vs conniving)
- Altruism (desire to help)
- Compliance (cooperative)
- Modesty (humble, unassuming)
- Tender-mindedness (easily touched by suffering)
For Agreeableness, what is the DeYoung’s Aspects Model?
Compassion (Sympathetic, understanding, empathic, care about others)
Politeness (Non-violent, modest, humble, honest, moral)
For agreeableness, what is the Ashton& Lee’s HEXACO Model?
(2 sets of four facets)
- Agreeableness has four facets
- Forgiveness (vs vengeful)
- Gentleness (non-judgmental, accepting)Flexibility (can compromise)
- Patience (vs quick tempered)
- Honesty-Humility (H) has four facets
- Sincerity (vs dishonest, immoral)
- Fairness (vs manipulative, exploitive)
- Greed-Avoidance (vs greedy)
- Modesty (vs showy, pretentious
T or F: Extraversion means friendly?
False, being friendly is an aspect of agreeableness.
What are the basic aspects of agreeabless?
controlling your behavior, having motivation to maintain social relationships, having empathy.
High agreeable people are nicer and ____ because _____________?
because....project positivity onto others.
What is the Graziano: self fulfilling prophecy of agreeableness?
- Project positivity onto others (expect the best)
- Make excuses for others’ shortcomings
- Make competitive situations cooperative
What did the "mate poaching" study of agreeableness find?
Agreeable people are less likely to poach and less likely to agree to be poached.
What is the differene between HEXACO agreeableness and HEXACO Honesty - humility?
A: forgiving and tolerant of others
H: fair and genuine in dealing with others
What did the Sauicer study find in regards to the difference between agreeableness and honesty?
Found that Honesty: was following moral rules & norms.
Found that Agreeableness: was being cooperative, even tempered and friendly.
Explain the study of Game Theory Evidence?
People had the opportunity to divide $10 between them and someone else. Honesty –Humility had a medium sized effect in predicting cooperation and non-exploitation but agreeableness did not. So HH gave more money to another person but A did not.
What is the heritability of agreeableness?
We have limited research in this area but ADH-4 gene is linked to A.
Agreeableness if linked to what form of ADH-4 gene?
The variant CC form. Which is leads to less aggression and less substance dependence.
For conscientiousness, what is the Costa& McCrae’s Five Factor Model?
Competence (capable, sensible)
Order (neat, tidy)
Dutifulness (serious, reliable)
Deliberation (vs impulsiveness)
For conscientiousness, what is the Ashton& Lee’s HEXACO Model?
Organization (vs sloppy, haphazard)
Diligence (works hard, takes goals seriously)
Perfectionism (high personal standards, detail oriented)
Prudence (impulse control, think ahead, plan)
For conscientiousness, what is the DeYoung’s Aspects Model?
Industriousness (Work hard, take goals seriously, don’t procrastinate, follow through)
Order (Tidy, organized, perfectionist, detail-focused)
What are the basic aspects of conscientiousness?
Ability to restrain normal impulses, control thoughts, actions, & emotions, delay gratification (short term pain for long term gain)
What big five trait is linked to living longer?
What are low C at age 11 at risk for?
"all cause of mortality"
High blood cholesterol and high blood pressure.
What ist he Terman Study?
What are some health behaviors that Hampson and Friedman found of high conscientiousness people?
Drink less alcohol, less drug use, eat better, less risky sex, take more medical advice.
How do high conscientiousness people do in college?
- more likely to get into college
- better GPAs
- graduate more often and faster
Why do high conscientiousness people do better in college?
- set higher goals
- high class attendance
- don't procrastinate
- start earlier
- do homework
- do task they don't like
How do high conscientiousness people do in the work world?
- make more money
- have a job they like
- better relationship with boss
Why do high conscientiousness people do better in the work world?
do better in college, which creates opportunities
“pay their dues”
are responsible, serious, and reliable
T or F: High conscientiousness people don't have successful long term relationships?
False they are less likely to get divorced and have higer relationship satisfaction.
What does low conscientiousness strongly predict and what do studies find about this?
They find that low c people can't delay gratification are are implusive which leads to more total arrest of jailed inmates.
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