research problems, questions, and hypotheses

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research problems, questions, and hypotheses
2013-12-04 15:39:30
3215 final

3215 final
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  1. research problem
    an enigmatic, perplexing, or troubling situation

    its purpose is to solve the problem by gathering relevant data
  2. problem statement
    a statement articulating the research problem and making an argument to conduct a new study
  3. statement of purpose
    the researcher's summary of the overall study goal 

    words such as aim or objective are used
  4. research aims or objectives
    the specific accomplishments to be achieved by conducting the study
  5. research question
    the specific queries the researcher wants to answer in addressing the research problem 

    drives the type of data to be collected
  6. hypotheses
    the researcher's predictions about relationships among 2 or more variables

    states an expected, a predicted answer to the research question 

    suggest the predicted relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

    must contain terms that indicate relationship [e.g., more then, different from, associated with]

    are articulated almost exclusively in quantitative studies

    are tested through statistical procedures
  7. sources of research problems
    • - experience and clinical fieldwork
    • - nursing literature
    • - social issues
    • - theory
    • - suggestions form external sources [e.g., priority statements of national organizations or funders]
  8. problem statements
    - broad enough to include central concerns/main concepts  BUT narrow enough to serve as a guide to study design

    presented early in research articles and often begins with the first sentence after the abstract

    it states what is going to be problematic
  9. 6 components of the problem statement
    • - identification of the problem 
    • - background 
    • - scope
    • - consequences 
    • - knowledge gaps 
    • - proposed solutions
  10. problem statement component: identification of the problem
    what is wrong with the current situation
  11. problem statement component: background
    what is the nature or context of the problem
  12. problem statement component: scope
    how big is the problem, and how many people are affected
  13. problem statement component: consequence
    what are the consequences of not fixing the problem
  14. problem statement component: knowledge gap
    what information about the problem is lackigng
  15. problem statement component: proposed solution
    how will the study contribute to the problem's solution
  16. statement of purpose: quantitative
    • - identifies key study variables 
    • - identifies possible relationships among variables
    • - indicates the population of interest
    • - suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry (e.g., to test..., to compare...., to evaluate)
  17. statements of purpose: qualitative
    • - identifies the central phenomenon 
    • - suggesets the research tradition [e.g. grounded theory, enthogrphy]
    • - indicates the group, community , or setting of interest
    • - suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry [e.g./ to describe..., to dicover..., to explore]
  18. buzz words for grounded theory
    processes; social structures, social interactions
  19. buzz words for phenomenological studies
    experiences; lived; meaning; essence
  20. buzz words for ethnographic studies
    - culture; roles; lifeways; cultural behaviors
  21. research questions
    are sometimes direct re-wordings of statements pf purpose, worded as a question

    sometimes used to clarify or lend specificity to the purpose statement
  22. research question in quantitative study
    identifies PICO and typically pose queries about the relationship among variables
  23. research questions in qualitative studies
    includes the phenomena and the group of interest. research questions often pose queries linked to the research tradition
  24. hypotheses in qualitative studies?
    does not have a formal hypothesis do the information on hypotheses is focused on QUANTITATIVE studies
  25. simple hypothesis
    express a predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
  26. complex hypothesis
    states a predicted relationship between two or more independent variables and/or two or more dependent variables
  27. directional hypotheses
    specifies not only the existence but the expected direction for the relationship between variables
  28. nondirectional hypothesis
    • does not stipulate the direction of the relationship
    • - i.e. can predict the pts. age and falling are related but they do not specify whether older pts or younger ones are predicted to be a greater risk 

    predicts the existence of a relationship but not its directions
  29. research hypothesis
    states the actual prediction of a relationship [are statements of expected relationships between variables]
  30. statistical or null hypothesis
    expresses the absence of a relationship [used only in statistical testing]

    states that there is no relationships between the independent variable and dependent variables
  31. proof?
    • ™Hypotheses are never proved or disproved
    • - Statistical hypothesis testing cannot provide absolute proof—only probabilistic information to support an inference that a hypothesis
    • is probably correct (or not).

    • ™Hypotheses are supported, or not, by the
    • study data.