urinary and reproductive systems FINAL Exam

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  1. The urinary system -  functions
    •  The primary function of the urinary system is to help maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition and volume of blood through the removal and restoration of selected amounts of water and solutes. It also eliminates wastes from the body
    • elimination of nitrogenous wastes, toxins, and drugs maintenance of ionic, acid/base, and water balance
    • conservation of important substances
    • secrete renins
    • secrete EPO (binds with receptors in the bone marrow, where it stimulates the production of RBCs released when hypoxic cells, blood loss, high altitude)
  2. glomerulus
    • renal corpuscle has two components: a tuft of capillary loops called glomerulus surrounded by a double-walled epithelial cup, called the glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
    • where blood is filtered
    • 3 cells:
    • 1. endothelial cells- fenestrated
    • 2. podocytes- sit outside endothelial cells and develop them with foot process that filtration slits
    • 3. mesangial cells- hold structure together-cause contraction and relaxation, modified smooth muscle cells
  3. RAA pathway, glomerular filtration rate - control
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  4. Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures, what are these three main pressures?
    • 1. glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP) in relation to two opposing forces
    • 2. capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP)
    • 3. blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP).
    • When blood enters the glomerulus, the BP (glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure) forces water and dissolved blood components through the endothelial fenestrations (pores) of the capillaries, basement membrane, and on through the filtration slits of the adjoining visceral wall of the glomerular capsule. The resulting fluid is called the filtrate.
  5. juxtaglomerular apparatus.6&7. The ability to form concentrated urine depends collecting duct
    • The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by vasodilation of the afferent arteriole.
    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) consists of the juxtaglomerular cells of an afferent arteriole and the macula densa.
    • helps regulate BP and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
  6. The ability to form concentrated urine depends
    collecting duct
  7. The ability to form concentrated urine depends
  8. loop of Henle
    • set up a concentration gradient that will be better used later by the DCT and the collecting duct to create dilute or concentrated urine
    • part of the renal tubule
    • consists of a descending limp of the loop of Henle and a acending limb of the loop of Henle
    • reabsorbs about 40% of the filtered K, 25% of the filtered Na and Cl and 15% of the filtered water. Here, reabsorption of water by osmosis is not automatically coupled to reabsorption of filtered solutes. Thus, there can be independent regulation of both your total body water and the osmotic pressure of body fluids
    • descending out water
    • ascending NaCl out
  9. ADH (function, when its present & not)
    anti pee hormone
    • opens aquapores
    • ADH antidiuretic hormone
    • regulates reabsorption in the final portion of the DCT and the collecting ducts
    • rate of water is lost from the body depends mainly on antidiuretic hormone, which controls water permeability of principal cells in the collecting ducts (and in the last portion of the distal convoluted tubules)

    kidneys secrete concentrated (hypertonic) urine to conserve water in the presence of ADH; large amount of water are reabsorbed from the filtrate into interstitial fluid, increasing solute concentration. The countercurrent mechanism also contributes to the secretion of concentrated urine

    • kidneys produce dilute (hypotonic) urine to excrete excess water in the absence of ADH; renal tubules absorb more solutes than water
    • Antidiuretic hormone increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water
  10. ADH
  11. Angiotensin II
    • Glomerular blood flow depends on renal autoregulation, hormonal regulation (angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide, ANP) , and neural regulation.
    • - vasoconstrictor (increases systemic and renal perfusion pressure
    • -activates NA uptake in both proximal tubule and collecting duct
    • -stimulates release of aldosterone (from adrenal gland) and vasopressin (from pituitary) Overall
    • -enhances salt and water retention
    • - increases volume
    • -increase vascular resistance
    • -hence increases BP and renal perfusion pressure Angiotensin II supress renin release
  12. Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
    (def. of secretion)
    • secretion removes materials that are not needed by the body from the blood and adds them to the filtrate
    • K, H, NH4, ions, urea and creatinine, and drugs and para-aminohippuric acid
    • gets rids the body of certain materials, and it helps control blood pH by secreting H+ ions and increasing or decreasing HCO3 concentration
  13. Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
  14. Which of the following substances are not normally found in the filtrate?
    • formed elements (RBC, WBC, platelets)
    • proteins
  15. nephron - definition
    • nephron is the functional unit of the kidney
    • consists of a renal corpuscle where fluid is filtered, and a renal tubule into which the filtered fluid passes.
    • 1. The renal corpusle has 2components: 1. a tuft of capillary loops called the glomerulus surrounded by a double-walled epithelial cup, called the glomerular capsulse (Browman's)
  16. ADH
  17. diuretics
    • urine volume is influenced by BP, Blood concentration, temp, diuretics, and emotions
    • An agent that promotes the excretion of urine, thereby lowering blood volume and pressure.
  18. aldosterone
    • regulates reabsorption of NaCl in the final portion of the DCT and the collecting ducts
    • The principal corticosteroid hormone involved in the regulation of electrolyte balance (mineralocorticoid) stimulated by angiotensin II
    • A drop in blood Na+concentration is normally compensated by the kidneys under the infl uence of the hormone aldosterone. This hormone stimulates the distal tubules and collecting ducts to reabsorb Na+. Because the reabsorption of Na+ is followed passively by chloride ions and water, aldosterone has the net effect of retaining both salt and water. Aldosterone also stimulates the secretion of potassium ions (K+) into the distal tubes and collecting ducts if K+concentration in the blood is too high
    • The release of aldosterone is stimulated directly by a rise or fall in Na+ and K+concentrations in the blood. Aldosterone may also be stimulated indirectly through a drop in blood pressure.
  19. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
    • 1. Renal Corpuscle:
    • function: filtrate fluid
    • capillary loops called glomerulus surrounded by a double walled epithelial cup (glomerular capsule, Bowman's capsule)
    • filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane.endothelial-capsular membrane- consists of glomerular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane, and filtration slits in podocytes of visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule
    • 2. Renal Tubule:
    • PCT, loop of Henle, DCT
    • wall consists of a single layer of epithelial cells and a basement membrane
    • --
    • nephrons
    • 1. Control blood concentration and volume by removing selected amounts of water and solutes
    • 2. Regulate blood pH.
    • 2. Remove toxic wastes from the blood
    • form urine by: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
  20. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
    • reabsorption in PCT
    • - the movement of certain components of the filtrate back into the blood
    • -and retains substances needed by the body, water, glucose, amino acids, and ions Na, K, CA, Cl, bicarbonate, and P.
    • -Na reabsorption because more of them pass the glomerular filter than any other substance except water
    • active transport of NA promotes reabsorption of water by osmosis
    • loss of water from the filtrate creates a concentration gradient for some substances, (K, Cl, HCO3, urea and promotes their reabsorborption by passive diffusion)
    • usually all glucose and amino acids are filtered by th glomeruli are reabsorbed in the PCT
  21. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
    tubular secretion removes materials that are not needed by the body form the blood and adds them to the filtration
  22. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
  23. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
  24. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
  25. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
  26. anatomy and function of each part of the nephron
  27. Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree, except the ________ system.
    • DO:
    • kidneys, lungs, skin, and gastrointesinal tract
  28. physical characteristic of urine
    • color
    • odor
    • turbidity (cloudyness)
    • pH
    • specific gravity (solute concentrarion)
  29. The differences in the sizes of the diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles  - purpose
    • afferent (inside)
    • efferent (out) keep much blood in create pressure
  30. urethra
    • urethra- tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder draining urine to the exterior
    • 3 coats F/ 2 coats M
    • 1st (KIDNEY) renal pelvis
    • 2nd ureters
    • 3rd urinary bladder
    • 4th urether
  31. Ureters
    • retroperitoneal
    • consist of a mucosa, musularis, and fibrous coat
    • transport urine form renal pelvis (kidney) to the urinary bladder, primarily by peristalsis but hydrostatic pressure and gravity also contribute
  32. All of the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are   - location and how they are held in place
    • retroperitoneal organs
    • attached to the posterior abdominal wall
    • near the center of the concave medical border of the kidney is a notch called the hilus
    • 3 layers of tissue innermost renal capsule, adipose capsule, and outer renal fascia
    • renal artery- blood supply
    • renal plexus- nerve supply
    • Right Kidney is lower
    • Left is higher
  33. hilum (def)
    • The prominent indentaiton on the medial surface of the kidney is the hilum
    • notch which the ureter leaves and blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.
  34. kidney regions
  35. efferent arteriole
    vasocontrict, increasing GHSP (glomular hydrostatic pressure) which directly increases GFR (glomerular filtration rate) back to normal
  36. position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity
    located in a position that is retroperitoneal surrounded by a fibrous capsule held in place by the renal fascia covered by peritoneum
  37. floating kidney
    • The condition called ______(floating kidney) is especially dangerous beacuse the ureters or renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement
    • Nephrotosis (floating kidney) is a downward displacement or dropping of the kidney. Thin persons are most susceptible because their adipose capsule or nenal fascia may be deficient, allowing slippage of the kidney from its original position. It is dangerous because the ureter may kink, blocking urine flow and resulting in pressure damage to kidney tissue
  38. podocytes
    podocytes have filtration slits of the viscelar layer of the glomerular (Bowmans capsule)
  39. macula densa
  40. macula densa
    The cells of the maculas densa and the juxtaglomerualar cells form the Juxtaglomerular Complex
  41. function of the kidney
  42. renal corpuscle
    • The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers endotheliym of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits
    • most blood is filtered here
    • glomeruls capillary loops and bowmans capsule
  43. proximal convoluted tubule
    The primary function of the PCT is absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins and water. 
  44. distal convoluted tubule
  45. loop of Henle
    The U-shaped segment of the nephron is nephron loop (loop of Henle)
  46. Which of the following is not normally excreted in the urine?
    • formed elements
    • proteins
  47. Which of the following is not normally a component of the glomerular filtrate?
    • formed elements
    • proteins
  48. glomerulus
    the majority of the glomeruli are located in the ____cortex___ of the kidney
  49. The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes:
    • RENIN
    • One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex
  50. regulation of blood volume
    if BP goes down RAA pathway tries to raise the BP
  51. RAA pathway
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urinary and reproductive systems FINAL Exam
2013-12-11 16:05:02
urinary reproductive

urinary and reproductive systems
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