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What was the impact of increased technological use in America on space?
resulted in a retreat to the private sphere
What was a popular attitude which corresponded with the rise of the domestic sphere?
The home is a retreat from the cruel public sphere
What effect did the Civil War have on public space?
- It drew young men & women out into the public sphere
- Transportation also played a role esp. the bicycle for women
How did men dominate public spaces?
Gentlemen's recreation i.e baseballs, saloons, brothels & burlesque
When and how did women big to play a main role in public spaces?
- Late 1800s
- Middle class women went to work in department stores,
- women celebrated public spheres
Which cultural developments created further engagement in the public sphere?
- 1. Forms of entertainment i.e. museums, amusement parks, feature films, increased nightlife
- 2. Transportation i.e. the bicycle, improved rail service, introduction of the automobile
How did the increased popularity of the public sphere effect parochial space?
Increased parochial space
How did the Great Depression affect public/private spaces?
Increased popularity of private sphere
In the 1970s, how did people feel about the private/public spheres and why?
- preferred private sphere because of the increasing comforts of home
- suburbanization & TVs at home were factors
How do Americans historically feel about mentality and self-improvement?
- building character is a historically human pursuit
- increasingly, americans celebrated sympathy & affection
How did the puritans, romantics and social reformers feel about mentality, respectively?
- puritans: people are corrupt
- romantics: people are inherently good
- social reformers: people are a blank state
In the 19th century, how did people feel about the values of sincerity & authenticity and how did they show these values?
- emphasis on honesty, sobriety, self- discipline, piety
- concern about sincerity of others
- founding of YMCA, Sunday school, boy/girl scouts
What was American work like in the 1900s? (5)
- Majority worked at home
- Others worked at the mill or factory
- 10 hour days, 6-7 days a week
- Product centered
- Gender & marital status determined work
How did the nature of work change by 2000? (3)
- Age & education separated workers, not gender & marital status
- service oriented
- child labor laws
How did retirement change over the course of the 20th century?
In 1900, most men worked from childhood until their later years, by mid century, more retired by 65 than did not
How did specialization change over the course of the century?
degree of specialization doubled over the course of the century
How did substandard work change over the course of the century? Who had to take on these positions?
- From the 1980s onward, substandard work increased
- Older, foreign born and poorly educated workers increasingly had to take these positions
How did college grads's earning change between 1970 & 1990?
They increased their earnings
How does education affect working hours? Why?
- College graduates work longer hours
- The less educated may wish to work longer hours but cannot do so because they are not given as many hours
What has been the trend in minimum wage and what effect has this had on society?
- Reached its peak power in 1968 & has been dropping ever since
- In 2000, it was worth less than anytime since 1950
- Results in increased income inequality
Trends of nonstandard work in America
- The number of people who work nonstandard hours is increasing
- 1 out of every 5 employees works outside the 9-5 range
- men are more likely than women to work nonstandard hours
Consequences of nonstandard work
- schedules undermine family stability
- increases housework
- loss of family dinner
What can we do to alleviate some of the consequences of nonstandard work?
- require higher wages for late shifts
- expand availability, flexibility & affordability of childcare
- policy options to limit night work
- Whatever people in a group display
- Not a property of an individual but of a distribution
Positive vs negative deviations
- positive: better than average
- negative: worse than average
Four functions of crime and deviance
- 1. Cohesion, solidarity, integration
- 2. Boundary maintanence and definition
- 3. Social change
- 4. Full employment
What is the conflict perspective on crime?
lawmakers legislate against acts which threaten the elite
What is the consensus perspective on crime?
Law represents shared values & norms and reflects broad agreement
What is the social constructionist perspective on crime?
Different groups use resources to gain ownership over an issue
What are the sources of the fear caused by crime?
- 1. interactions with victims
- 2. exposure to media
- 3. weak ties to the community
Three main reactions to fear of crime
- 1. Avoidance behaviors
- 2. Protective behaviors
- 3. Insurance behvaiors
Trends in American imprisonment
- US has the highest incarceration rate in the world
- Huge increase in incarcerations since the 1980s
Explain the racial disparities concerning imprisonment
- Blacks are incarcerated at 6X the rate of whites
- Blacks are 1 million of the 2.3 million incarcerated
Why is there such a high racial disparity in imprisonment? (4)
- War on drugs: Blacks are sent to prison on drug related charges at a rate 10X higher than whites
- Mandatory minimum sentencing laws
- Inner city crime
- "Three strikes"/ habitual offender
What are some of the problems with imprisonment?
Prisons are marked by isolation, mental illness, drug use, violence & gang activity
What are three ways that jails actually perpetuate crime?
- 1. Gathers marginal people into groups
- 2. Teaches skills and attitudes of deviance/crime
- 3. Reinforces alienation from society
What are five consequences of corporate power?
- 1. The environment
- 2. Political lobbying
- 3. Low wages & privatization
- 4. Exploitation of workers
- 5. Can litigate repeatedly until victory
What are five social barriers concerning the environmental movement?
- 1. Issues concerning the environment are complicated, global & abstract leading to confusion and fear
- 2. Perceived lack of control leading to disempowerment
- 3. "I'm not an expert" barrier
- 4. Suburbanization & the use of cars
- 5. Lack of international cooperation
What are five things that we should do about inequality?
- 1. control the tax system
- 2. universalize preschool
- 3. price control colleges/ universities
- 4. regulate wall street
- 5. revive the labor movement