-A recurring social gathering, typically in a private home
-Had the purpose of discussing artistic works, as well as other intellectual topics
-A section of music repeats with different words each time
-The entire song is one large unit
-No large scale repetition
3) Known for
-Born in Vienna, idolized Beethoven
-Among one of the earliest Romantic composers and wrote symphonies and chamber music
-Best known for his Lieders, and he wrote more than 600 songs
-A set of songs written by a composer as a set
-Typically connected by common musical elements
-Intended to be performed together
-Wrote symphonies, short piano works, Lieders
-A mental disorder later in life
-Refers to expressive and rhythmic freedom by a slight speeding up and then slowing down of the tempo
-At the discretion of soloist or the conductor
Genre: Character Piece
-Romantic era, for domestic or public
-Voices a mood
-Often ternary form (ABA)
-Relatively short with one movement
Three subgenres of a character piece
-Nocturne (a "night piece")
-Etude (a "study")
-Waltz (a "dance")
Exclusively what instrument?
-Polish and French, died at 39 of TB
-Wrote domestic pieces
Best known for?
-Hungarian, piano virtuoso
-Big womanizer, very religious
-Piano works and symphonic poems
Advocate of what?
Known as what and never wrote what?
-German, close friends with Schumann
-Advocate of absolute music
-Known as a perfectionist and never wrote opera
-Musical compositions intended to depict or suggest nonmusical incidents, ideas, or images, such as those drawn from literature
-Music that is not explicitly "about" anything
-In contrast to program music, it is non-representational
-Best known for?
-Composed how many songs
-Compositions were critical for what?
-French, Romantic composer
-His contributions to modern orchestra
-Further development of Romanticism
-A multi-movement composition with extra-musical content that directs the attention of the listener to a literary or pictoral association
-Hector Berlioz provides a story line (program) for the Symphonie Fantastique
- A recurring theme or character trait that serves as the
-Traceable to the composer Hector Berlioz, who used the term to denote the recurring theme in his Symphonie fantastique
Wrote music during?
Principal conductor of?
-Father of Czech Music
-1848 Prague Uprising
-Prague's Provisional Theatre
-A piece of music, most popular in the late 19th century, that is based on an extramusical theme, such as a story or nationalistic ideal, and usually consists of a single extended movement for a symphony orchestra
Studied music where?
Director of what?
-Prague's organ school
-Wrote many concertos, 11 operas
-National Conservatory of Music of America
Wrote how many plays?
-Poet. playwright, and librettist
-National theatre in Prague
- Describes the setting of romantic German poems to music, especially during the nineteenth century
-Practically allRomantic composers wrote works with elements of exoticism, which really just means the incorporation of melodic or thematic material from a non-German source
-The use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them
-Philosophy whose major categories are derived metaphorically from the attributes of living and growing things.
-Based on the conviction that art should imitate nature
-In music, a leading phrase or figure that is reproduced and varied through the course of a composition or movement
- Extended musical composition in Western classical music, generally scored for orchestra or concert band
-A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle
-A form of a movement consisting of three sections, the exposition, development, and recapitulation, often followed by a coda.
-Letter written by Ludwig van Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann at Heiligenstadt (today part of Vienna) on 6 October 1802.
-Reflects his despair over his increasing deafness and his desire to overcome his physical and emotional ailments
Beethoven's three style periods
-His Early Period features music that imitates the style of Haydn, Mozart. Classical
-Contains most popular music. Loud, pounding music
Staked his claim at being the first Romantic composer
- Late works are greatly admired for and characterized by their intellectual depth, intense and highly personal expression, and experimentation with forms
Could reflect his declining health
Ludwig van Beethoven
Composed how many songs?
Stopped conducting and performing because?
-Composer and pianist, one of the most famous
symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets
-Went deaf, but continued to compose (Late Period)
Involved in what?
Wrote how many operas?
-Italian, "Viva Verdi", one of Italy's favorite composers
-Involved in Italian nationalist movement
Unlike other composers, wrote what?
His pieces are known for?
-Composer, theatre director, conductor
-Libretto for his works
-Their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration
Built his own opera house
-The Richard Wagner Festival in Bayreuth was opened in 1876 with three performances of the complete Ring
-Here, only Richard Wagner's works are performed
- A work of art that makes use of all or manyart forms or strives to do so
- Richard Wagner used the term in two 1849 essays
-An associated melodic phrase or figure that accompanies the reappearance of an idea, person, or situation especially in a Wagnerian music drama
Ring of the Nibelung
-A cycle of four epic operas by the German composer Richard Wagner
-Wagner intended them to be performed in series
-A eucharist service in the Roman Catholic church to remember someone who has died
-Notable for the large number of musical compositions that it has inspired, including settings by Mozart, Verdi
Set up smuggled piano where?
-Pianist and conductor
-In concentration camp
-Assembled male/female choirs
-Wrote opera in concentration camp
-A type of music that usually has repeated sections in it with contrasting sections in between the repeated sections. One of the most famous rondo form music is, “Romance” that was written by Mozart.
Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky
-Russian, very successful in Russia
-Sexual identity, end-of-century pessimism
Considered to be?
Wrote how many ballets?
-Ballet dance teacher, teacher, choreographer
influential ballet master and choreographer of ballet who has ever lived
Wrote over 50 ballets
-A 20th century movement in art literature that centered around making a self-conscious break with the past in order to create works that were wholly new
Went where at age 11?
Influenced by what three things?
-Impressionism in painting, symbolism in poetry, exotic scales
-A movement in European classical music, mainly in France, that began in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century
-Focused on suggestion and atmosphere rather than strong emotion or the depiction of a story as in program music
-Late 19th century French movement
-Suggest, don't describe and free verse
-Main proponent: Stephane Mallarme, poet and critic
Worked as a what?
-Poet and critic
-Mallarmé's poetry has been the inspiration for several musical pieces, notably Claude Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
Could perform what and joined what?
-Ballet dancer and choreographer
-The greatest male dancer of the 20th century
- He could perform en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time, and joined the Ballet Russes
- Itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America
-The company never performed in Russia, and (after its initial Paris season) had no formal ties there
-Most influential ballet company of the 20th century
- Art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes
Members of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes later went on to found ballet traditions in the United States
-A person who organizes and often financesconcerts, plays or operas
-Sergei Diaghilev (1872—1929), the company's impresario (or "artistic director" in modern terms), was chiefly responsible for its success
Later lived where?
How did he make his big break?
-France and America
-Not well-known in Russia so moved to Paris
-By writing music for the Ballet Russes
- Its adherents favored simple, clear-cut tunes of folk character that revolved around a central note
-Massive harmonies based on block-like chords moving in parallel formation with harshly percussive effect
-Strong impulsion to a tonal center
-The simultaneous occurrence of two or more different tonalities or keys (the interrelated sets of notes and chords used in a composition)
- A modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century
Purpose: Present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas
Came to where and taught where?
-Post-Wagnerian Romantic style, introduced new atonality to music
-The "12-tone method" of composition
-Came to America to avoidNazis, taught at USC and UCLA
-Music that lacks a tonal center, or key
sound as though randomly chosen
- Style of composition that employs several different kinds of tone colors to a single pitch or to multiple pitches
Distributing the pitch or melody among several different instruments
A cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation
-Frequently used in 20th century music
Born where and attended what college?
-Born in LA, attended Pomona College
-Non-western philosophy, pushes boundaries of music
-Performance and conceptual art movements
Born where and studied where?
Wrote what kind of music?
Changed to what style?
Music described as what?
-Born in New York, studied in Paris
-In 1920s, wrote music with both jazz and atonal influences
-In 1930s, changed to a more populist style
-Music described as "American"
Influence has been compared to who?
-Dancer and choreographer
-Influence on dance has been compared with the influence Picasso had on the modern visual arts
-a term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playing musical instruments
-A piano technique modified by inserting specific items (bolts, screws, pieces of wood or rubber) into the string in order to modify their timbre
-A term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playingmusical instruments
One of first conductors to receive what?
-American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
-He was among the first conductors born and educated in the United States of America to receive worldwide acclaim
and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the piano
-A musical form and dance style that developed originally in Cuba, with further significant developments by Cuban musicians in Mexico and the USA
Considered to be?
Composed music for first 3?
How many Academy Award nominations?