A and P Ch 2

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
250811
Filename:
A and P Ch 2
Updated:
2014-01-04 11:46:07
Tags:
bio
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Description:
bio
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  1. Forms of Energy:
    • Chemical: stored in bonds
    • electrical: mov of charged particles
    • mechanical: directly involved in moving matter
    • radiant/electromagnetic: waves (UV, visible light)
  2. Components of Matter:
    • Atoms: building blocks for each element
    • Elements: matter is composed of elements (cant be further broken down)
    • Unique Properties:
    •      physical: senses, measurable
    •      chemical: how atoms interact (bond)
  3. Major Elements of Human Body: (majority)
    • 96% of body mass:
    • Hydrogen: 9.5
    • Oxygen: 65
    • Nitrogen: 3.2
    • Carbon: 18.5
  4. Minor Elements of Human Body:
    • 3.9% 9 elements
    • Calcium: 1.5
    • Phosphorus: 1
    • Potassium: .4
    • Sulfur: .3
    • Sodium: .2
    • Chlorine: .2
    • Magnesium: .1
    • Iodine: .1
    • Iron: .1
  5. 3 types of mixtures:
    • 1 Solution
    • 2 Colloid (emulsions): cytosol, large solute doesn't settle.
    • 3 Suspension: blood, large solutes settle out

    • Mixtures: no chemical bonding, seperated by physical means (heterogenous or homogenous)
    • Compounds: chemical bonds, seperated by breaking bonds. (homogenous)
  6. Bonds:
    • Ionic: transfer of val e- (anion / cations) NaCl
    • Covalent: sharing of e-
    •      polar covalent: unequal sharing H20
    •      nonpolar covalent: equal sharing C02 (charge balanced)
    • Hydrogen bonds: not true bonds
  7. Synthesis Reaction:
    • Anabolic: A + B = AB
    • Exchange Reactions (displacement): AB + C = AC + B
    • Decomposition (catabolic): AB = A + B
    •    oxidation / reduction (Redox Reactions:
    •         Oxidized: electron donors
    •         Reduced: electron acceptors
  8. Energy Flow:
    • All chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic
    • exergonic: net release of energy (catabolic / oxidative reactions)
    • endergonic: net gain of energy (anabolic)

    • Rate: increase temp = increase rate
    • increase temp= increase rate
    • decrease particle size = increase rate

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