Bracketing (identifying and holding in abeyance preconceived views)
May involve maintaining a reflexive journal
Emphasis on interpreting and understanding experience, not just describing it
Based on philosophy of Heidegger: Heideggerian hermeneutics
Bracketing does not occur.
Supplementary data sources: texts, artistic expressions
Focuses on the discovery of a basic social psychological problem that a defined group of
Elucidates social psychological processes and social structures
Has a number of theoretical roots—e.g., symbolic interaction
Originally developed by sociologists Glaser and Strauss
grounded theory methods
Primary data sources: In-depth interviews with 20 to 40 people; may be supplemented with
observations, written documents
Data collection, data analysis, sampling occur msimultaneously
ground theory analysis
Constant comparison used to develop and refine theoretically relevant categories
Focus is on understanding a central concern or core variable
A basic social process (BSP) explains how people come to resolve the problem or concern
grounded theory alternative views
Glaser and Strauss (generation of explanatory theory linking related concepts); called Glaserian methods
Strauss and Corbin (full conceptual description)
Nurse researchers have used both approaches
These focus on a thorough description and explanation of a single case or small number of
Cases can be individuals, families, groups, organizations, or communities.
Data often are collected over an extended period.
Texts that provide detailed stories are sometimes analyzed through narrative analysis.
There are numerous approaches to analyzing texts.
One example is Burke’s pentadic dramatism: analyzes 5 elements of a story (act, scene,
agent, agency, purpose); meant to be analyzed in ratios, such as act:agent
Descriptive Qualitative Studies
Many studies do not claim any specific type of approach or disciplinary tradition.
Such descriptive studies seek to holistically describe phenomena as they are
perceived by the people who experience them.
The researchers may say that they did a content analysis of the narrative data with the intent of understanding important themes and patterns.
Critical theory research
is a research with ideological perspective
Such research is concerned with a critique of existing social structures and with envisioning new possibilities.
Transformation is a key objective.
Ethnographies are especially likely to be critical.
a research with ideological perspective
Focuses on how gender domination and discrimination shape women’s lives and their consciousness
Participatory action research (PAR)
Produces knowledge through close collaboration with groups or communities that are vulnerable to control or oppression
Which of the following would best describe the key objective of critical theory research?
a.Long-term data collection
A key objective of critical theory research is transformation. Data collection over time is common in case studies. The effect of gender domination and discrimination is associated with feminist research. Groups or communities vulnerable to control or oppression are associated with participatory action