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Role of women in classical Greece
- They oversaw the household and took care of the children
- They had no political say
Role of men in classical Greece
- They had the dominant role in public life
- Only men could be citizens
- Had good jobs
Role of child girls in classical Greece
Took after their mothers
Role of child boys in classical Greece
- Might learn their father's trade
- Trained in the military at age 7
Role of slaves in classical Greece.
Had no rights, were abused.
Ancient Greece is known for being the birthplace of _________. Why?
Western civilization bc worlds first democracy and Olympic games.
What was the first major power in Ancient Greece?
What was the "Iliad"?
- Most famous ancient Greek epic story
- written by homer
- depicted the trojan war
3 major city states of Ancient Greece
Corinth, Delphi, Athens
Who was Solon
- First elected archon for 594 BCE
- Freed the farmers who were forced into slavery
- Set up a council of Four Hundred
Who was Plato
- One of Socrates brightest students
- Wrote the Republic, outlined his conception if the ideal state run by philosophers guided by reason and their love of wisdom
- Advocated the four basic virtues; truth, wisdom, courage, and moderation
- Established The Academy
Who was Aristotle
- Plato's student
- Wrote ethics, a more realistic view of humanity
- Wrote politics
- Established his own school in Lyceum
Name the three Persian Wars and briefly explain each.
Marathon Persians fighting out of their own territory, had to go across the Aegean Sea.
Thermopylae Athenians took defensive precautions, Greek traitor led the Persians along a mountain path.
Salamis Burned defenses of Athens
Who wrote Greece's first law code?
Who was the most gamous Greek physician?
Apollo was the Greek god of ___, ____, ____, ___, and _____.
Youth, poetry, music, oracles, healing.
How many kings did the government of Sparta have?
Name the three classes of Sparta.
- People who come from other Greek city-states or from other countries
In Sparta, only ____ born in Sparta were citizens.
Who started a school for girls in Athens?
When was the Golden Age of Classical Greece?
480 BCE - 380 BCE
What were the three major reasons for rivalry between Athens and Sparta that eventually led to the Peloponnesian Wars?
- Athens tried to expand its empire on Central Greece which threatened Sparta's power base
- Athens blocked some cities from trading at Athenian-controlled ports
- Sparta was ruled by Aristocrats, unlike Greece which was democratic
What are the four factors that contributed to Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian Wars?
- A plague killed a third of the people
- Two generals died
- Spartans allied up with the Sicilians and Persians
- Sparta prevented grain supply from reaching Athens
Basically, the Peloponnesian Wars was a battle over...
Who was Pericles?
A great Athenian politician who delivered a life-changing speech at a ceremony, commemmorating the deaths of the Athenian soldiers who died in the Peloponnesian Wars.
What league came to be the basis of Athenian empire?
The Delian league
What are three significant innovations of Athenian democracy?
- All citizens could vote on the legislation in the Assembly
- Every citizen had an equal chance to hold public office (aside from elected positions)
- All law cases were decided by a majority vote of citizen juries
Who conquered Greece in the 330s BCE?
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great had been a student of which great Greek philosopher?
How old was Alexander the Great when he took the throne of Macedonia?
20 years old!!!
What are some of the places Alexander the Great conquered?
Persia, Western Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Palestine.
Alexander the Great was upset that his men were tired of battling because...
He wanted to push further and conquer EVERYTHING!! ALL THE LAND
Was Alexander the Great a mean military leader? Name 4 things he did after battles.
- No!!! He was caring. After battle, he:
- Examined his men's wounds
- Praised their efforts
- Arranged extravagant funerals for the fallen
- Arranged games and contests for his men
When Alexander the Great eventually returned to Babylon, he assumed the role of what?
The great Conqueror
Though Alexander the Great was a great leader, he eventually became prone to what?
Fits of rage and paranoid suspicion. :(
How did Alexander the Great die and how old was he at this time?
Malarial fever. Oh. He was only 32 years and 8 months old.
The Roman civilization found its roots in which society?
What kinds of scenes were depicted in the frescoes on Etruscan tombs?
- Gladiators fighting and chariot races
- Hades and the underworld
The Etruscans adopted the Greek alphabet to their own language, which eventually turned into _____.
Etruscan soldiers were treated unfairly and according to their social status (the wealthy and the poor). True or false?
The Etruscans had ________ military service and training.
Who was the first king of Rome according to Livy's accounts?
Romulus was supposed to be the son of which God?
Mars, God of War
Romulus and his twin brother Remus escaped the wrath of whom?
THeir evil Uncle Amulius who wanted to murder them
Romulus primarily became king because...
He killed his brother Remus (committed fratricide).
What things were symbolic in the lifestyles of the Etruscan kings?
- Royals wore purple
- An axe within a bundle of rods-symbol of authority - this was called the fasces.
Who was the last Etruscan king?
Tarquin (a.k.a Tarquin the Proud or his full name, L. Tarquinius Suberbus)
Tarquin was known as (adjective) and (adjective).
Who raped Lucretia?
Dat fool, Tarquin's son
Who held up Lucretia as an ideal or model for women?
Lucretia committed _________ after telling her father and husband that she had been raped.
Name three Etruscan contributions.
- Urban drainage system
- Walled cities
- Use of arch
- Metal-working skills
- Construct a harbour
What civilization ruled in 'Archaic Rome'?
What happens in a republic?
Citizens elect leaders to run their government.
What was the Roman republic a result?
The discontent of the earlier tyrannical Etruscan monarchy.
Republic is a combination of what three government systems?
Aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy
During the Roman republic period, constant tension and feuds happened between which two groups?
The patricians and the plebeians.
Who were the patricians?
Rich people of Rome
Who were the plebeians?
Poor people of Rome
In the republic of Rome, the leaders chosen to elect the King were called _______.
Who were the most powerful magistrates in Roman Republic?
The two consuls, or Chief Magistrates of State; both had the power of veto.
Who ruled in the Senate of Rome?
Men who controlled Rome and most of its land.
What did Romans believe to be the only important form of wealth?
Rome ws among the few societies that developed _______ laws.
What was the name of the first Roman Law?
The Twelve Tables
Most laws in The Twelve Tables related to what?
When were The Twelve Tables written and in what language?
450 BCE, in Latin
Despite The Twelve Tables, Roman law still distinguished between what two social groups?
The rich and the poor, or freemen and slaves.
The Roman Republic was a patriarchal society. True or false?
Romans spoke Latin, which spread throughout the Mediterranean. Both Latin and Greek survived. True or false?
False, only Greek survived.
How many Punic Wars were there?
The Punic Wars concerned which two nations?
Rome and Carthage
Art in Rome was influenced by which earlier civilization?
Greek architecture was fused into Roman culture. True or false?
Romans gave the world what important thing??? Hint: Alicia Keys used the word to describe New York ;);)
Why did the first Punic War happen?
The Roman Republic broke an alliance with Carthage and invaded Sicily.
Who won the first Punic War and what countries did they conquer?
Rome won and added Sicily and Syracuse to its empire, destroys Carthage.
Who wanted revenge on Rome that they led the second Punic War?
How many troops and elephants did Hannibal have?
36 000 troops and 37 elephants.
Who won the second Punic War? What 3 things were the losers forced to do?
Romans won again, Carthaginians forced to pay reparations to Rome, dismantle their navy, and forfeit commercial empire.
Similar to the second Punic War, what caused the third Punic War?
Again, carthage wanted REVENGE on Rome.
Who won the third Punic War and how?
Carthage was unsuccessful; Rome invaded them and burned Carthage to the ground. They also stole its many wealthy objects.
What are the Punic Wars also known as?
What did Rome ultimately want out of the Punic Wars?
TO ANNIHILATE CARTHIGINIAN CULTURE
Carthaginian survivors of the Punic Wars became what?
In the first 300 years of the Republic, what was a major part of Roman life?
Name three reasons for the discontent with Roman Republic.
- Widening gap between patricians and plebeians
- Issue of Roman citizenship in colonies
- Wealth from wars and expansion made leaders greedy and dishonest
- Consuls were assassinated
- Increading slave rebellions against bad treatment
What did the Gracchus brothers do?
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were young patrician tribunes who first attempted social and political reform. The senate felt threatened by them so they were killed.
What factors contributed to the decline of the Roman Republic? (Name at least three)
- Government failed to proved grants to soliders
- Leaders plunging Rome into turmoil
- Internal wars
- Struggle with dominant external power of Carthage
- Struggle of the orders of the Republic
- Class warfare
Who was Julius Caesar?
A brilliant military commander who suppressed rebellions and became dictator in Rome.
What reforms did Julius Caesar make? (3)
- Made himself dictator
- Gave people in provinces outside of italy the right to become citizens
- Increased soldiers' pay
Why was Julius Caesar killed?
B/c his enemies were afraid of him becoming King.
Who was Octavian and what was his name chanegd to?
Octavian was Julius Caesar's nephew, the adopted heir of Caesar and the first Emperor of the Roman Empire. The senate gave him the title of Augustus, or "Exalted One." We know Octavian as Augustus Caesar.
3 benefits of Julius Caesar
- made many reforms to strengthen Rome and protect its power
- gained respect from ppl in provinces outside italy
- gained respect from soldiers
3 consequences of Julius Caesar
- Romans believed he was a megalomaniac
- He angered the Senate
- The Senate had to lose money
3 Reforms of Augustus Caesar
- Established a sense of peace and security
- Shared control over the provinces with the Senate
- Allowed kings in border regions to keep their throne
Benefits of Augustus Caesar
- Led to a blossoming of Roman art and culture
- Kept firm control over the army
- Kept kings happy
Consequences of Augustus Caesar
- Troops were always at his call .: making people fearful
- Senate might rebel against him out of fear
- Senate had too much freedom .: could rebel against empire
What was the name of the popular philosophy at the end of the Republican era in Rome and what was it based upon?
Epicureanism, based upon ideas of Greek philosopher Epicurus
Epicureanism advocated what three things?
Pursuit of happiness, pleasure, and absence of pain.
What was the popular philosophy during the first two centuries of the common era?
Stoicism was also based upon _____ ideas.
Stoicism sent the message that...
One need not worry but accept whatever life provides.
Who was Cattulus
Provided us with glimpses into the lives of Rome's upper class
Who was Cicero
Writer, orator, politician, statesman
Who was Virgil
Great poet who lived on his father's farm and used those years as inspiration for pastoral poems
Who was Livy
A prose writer, devoted his career to a 142 volume history of Rome
In general, gladiators were _________, _______, or ______.
Criminals, prisoners of war, slaves.
What is a lanista?
Owner of gladiators
Free men could become professional gladiators to gain the ________ and ________ of wealthy Roman citizens.
Roman citizens legally derogated as infamus could sell themselves to _______ or gladiator trainers. These citizens were called _______.
Condemned criminals, or the damnati ad mortem who committed a crime entered the arena weaponless. True or false?
What were private gladiator schools called?
After ___ to ___ years of combat could trained gladiators earn their freedom.
3 to 5
Spartacus trained at a very famous gladiator school in _______.
In Latin, what are the gladiatorial games called?
The Romans called the Colosseium an ____________ b/c it means "both theatres" in Greek.
The Latin word for sand is _______, which is where we get the English word arena.
Staged hunts, or _______, were often fought before the gladiators came out. Animals were killed by a special kind of gladiator, called ________.
During the lunch break of gladiatorial games, _________ were often executed.
What's the Latin name of the execution in which people were killed by animals?
Damnatio ad bestias
Mock-naval battles were fought in the Colosseum. What were they called in Latin?
What does, "Ave, imperator, mortituri te salutant!" mean??
"Hail, emperor, those about to die salute you!"
Who helped the emperor decide if a gladiator should be killed?
How did a gladiator surrender?
He would hold up an index finger.
Why weren't gladiators killed often?
B/c training was v. expensive
Who is Hermes?
What two weapons does Hermes use and what are their Latin names?
- Sea trident ---> Aequoreo/tridente
- Plumed metal helmet ---> Cassis
When did Caligula reign?
Caligula was whose grandnephew and successor?
What good things did Caligula do? Name 3
- Pardoned political prisoners
- Abolished some taces
- Put an end to treason trials
Bad things about Caligula?
- Mentally unstable
- Took money from wealthy families
- Sadistic and incestuous
Sum up Caligula's reign in a sentence.
Though he was ugly and mentally ill, his reign began positively, however plummeted after he began stealing money from wealthy families and earned the hate of pretty much everyone.
When did Nero reign?
Name 3 positive reforms Nero made.
- Did not allow gladiators to fight to the death
- Improved public order
- Guard against forgery
Nero's bad side included:
- He plotted his mum's murder
- Forced ppl to attend his concerts to listen to him sing um what a weirdo
- Killed tons of Christians
- Committed suicide
- just generally fucked up
Trajan reigned from??
3 Good things bout Trajan
- Exalted all good men
- Didn't take other ppl's money
- Publicly generous - HE CARED?? WOW
Trajan generally was a good emperor, true or false?
Who set up the first Roman Secret Service?
What are the major characteristics of "Pax Romana"?
Peace and security.
After whose death did the Roman Empire enter a long period of decline and suffering?
Who would eventually invade Rome and overthrow the government?
What problems arose after the death of Augustus??
- Political troubles
- Bad emperors
Why did Roman Emperors persecute Christians?
B/c they thought that Christians would reject the authority of rome and not worship him as a god.
Despite the mistreatment of Christians, their religion grew more popular and inspiring others to join. True or false?
Who issues the "Edict of Milan" and what was its result?
Emperor Constantine. As a result, all religious groups in the Roman Empire were accepted.
Basically, what 4 things are the reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire?
- Bad rulers (ie Nero, Caligula)
- Political troubles
- Diocletian's divide of Rome
- Spread of Christianity
What major thing is Diocletian known for?
The division of Rome into the Eastern Empire and the Western Empire.