It accurately measures the concept it is intended to measure. (ex. if indicator contains very little error, it is a valid measure)
Define indicator reliability.
the assignment of the same number to a phenomena (ex. landing the same number of murders in a neighborhood twice- reliable indicator)
Unpack the N.O.I.R. Scales.
Nominal- categorical data (ex. Name of school, car you drive)
Ordinal- quantities with natural ordering (ex. Ranking of sports teams from 1-5; no equal intervals)
Interval- intervals are equally split (ex. degrees Fahrenheit)
Ratio- Interval data with a natural zero point (ex. degrees Kelvin; time both begin at 0)
What is the difference between continuous and discrete data?
Continuous data is measured and can take any value within a range (ex. measure height, time, weight, length)
discrete data is counted (and can only take certain values- when counting a class, you can't count 1/2 a student)
Discern the different types of Measurement Validity.
Face validity- if management or user accept as validated (# of yrs. in school= education)
Consensual validity- if numerous people accept valid indicator (ex. recidivism rate)
Correlational validity- if correlates strongly with other indicators (ex. community satisfaction- monetary donations)
Predictive validity-if correctly predicts a specified outcome (ex. civil service exam scores- on the job performance)
Define the different reliability tests.
Test-retest- estimating by performing the same survey with the same respondents at different times
Parallel content- correlation between responses obtain on two sets of items
Inter-rater- application of measurement should not vary depending on who is doing the measuring
What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning?
Deductive starts with a hypothesis, and after observations, makes a conclusion about a class (Ex. All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal)
Inductive makes broad generalizations from specific observations (ex. Harold is bald. Harold is a grandfather. All grandfathers are bald)
What are the differences between nomathetic and idiographic research?
Nomathetic attempts to make generalizations through qualitative research (ex. one size fits all)
Idiographic- is a case specific type of research that is quantitative (what works for the o4w doesn't work for Midtown)
What is causation? What are the differences between reverse and spurious causation?
Causation is the causal relationship between conduct and result
Reverse causation is when A affects B.
Spurious causation is when C causes both A and B
Elaborate on the empirical evidences.
Effect flows cause temporally- change in dependent variable comes later than change in independent variable
covariation(correlation)- do they move together?
Lack of reverse causation- x causes y, then y causes x
Nonspuriousness- A relationship between two variables is one that cannot be explained by a third variable. If the effects of other relevant variables in the environment are controlled (ruled out as rival explanations) and the relationship between two variables is maintained
What is the difference between internal and external validity?
Internal- concerned with correctly concluding that an independent variable is, in fact, responsible for variation in the dependent variable
External- it checks the results; the replications should be with other settings, with other subject populations, and with other, but related variables.
Discern the measures of central tendency.
Mean- the average of all scores
Median- the median number in a ordered line of scores
Mode- the most occuring score
Interpolated Median- the third observation up from the bottom of the class