specific types of research

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  1. Mixed Methods Research
    ™Research that integrates qualitative and quantitative data and strategies in a single study or coordinated set of studies
  2. mixed method research advantages
    –Complementarity—words and numbers, the two languages of human communication

    –Incrementality—quicker feedback loops between hypothesis generation and testing

    –Enhanced validity—triangulation strengthens the ability to make inferences
  3. Applications of Mixed Methods Research
    ™Instrument development

    ™Hypothesis generation and testing

    ™Explication and illustration

    ™Theory building and refinement

    ™Intervention development
  4. component vs. integrated designs [mixed method design]
    component design: qualitative and quantitative aspects are discrete components 

    integrated design: integration of methods throughout the study
  5. studies that involve an intervention, include
    • clinical trials 
    • evaluation research
    • nursing intervention research
  6. studies that do not involve an intervention, including
    • outcomes research
    • surveys
    • secondary analyses
  7. clinical trials
    studies that develop clinical interventions and test their efficacy and effectiveness 

    may be conducted in four phases
  8. clinical trial phase 1
    ™Phase I: finalizes the intervention (includes efforts to determine dose, assess safety, strengthen the intervention)
  9. clinical trials phase 2
    ™Phase II: seeks preliminary evidence of effectiveness—a pilot test often using a quasi-experimental design
  10. clinical trials phase 3
    ™Phase III: fully tests the efficacy of the treatment via a randomized clinical trial (RCT), often in multiple sites; sometimes called an efficacy study
  11. clinical trials phase 4
    ™Phase IV: focuses on long-term consequences of the intervention and on generalizability; sometimes called an effectiveness study
  12. evaluations research
    ™Examines how well a specific program, practice, procedure, or policy is working

    ™Clinical trials are sometimes evaluations of an intervention or program.

    ™Some (but not all) evaluations are clinical trials because evaluations can address a variety of questions.
  13. types of evaluation
    ™Process (implementation) analysis

    ™Outcome analysis

    ™Impact analysis

    ™Cost (economic) analysis
  14. Process Analysis
    ™Also called an implementation analysis

    ™Yields descriptive information about how a program actually functions

    ™Often combines qualitative and quantitative information
  15. Outcome Analysis
    ™Seeks preliminary evidence about program success

    ™Common design:One-group pretest–posttest design

  16. Impact Analysis
    ™Yields information about a program’s net effects

    ™Typically usesan experimental or strong quasi experimental design
  17. Cost Analysis
    ™Also called an economic analysis

    ™Assesses monetary consequences of a progra —which may affect its ultimate viability

    ™Typically done in connection with an impact analysis (or an RCT)
  18. Outcomes Research
    ™Designed to document the quality and effectiveness of health care and nursing services

    Often focuses on parts of a health care quality model developed by Donabedian

    ™Typically relies on nonexperimental (correlational) designs
  19. outcome research key concepts
    –Structure of care (e.g., nursing skill mix)

    –Processes (e.g., clinical decision-making)

    –Outcomes (end results of patient care)
  20. outcome research tools include
    ™Tools include classification systems and taxonomies

    • - –Nursing actions and diagnoses (e.g., NANDA)
    • - Nursing interventions (e.g., NIC)
    • - –Nurse-sensitive outcomes (e.g., NOC)
  21. Survey Research
    ™Obtains information (via self-reports) on the prevalence, distribution, and interrelations of variables in a population

    ™Secures information about people’s actions, intentions, knowledge, characteristics, opinions, and attitudes

    ™Survey data are used in correlational studies.
  22. survey research models of collecting survey data
    –Personal (face-to-face) interviews

    –Telephone interviews

    • –Self-administered questionnaires
    • - ™Distributed by mail or the Internet

    ™Personal interviews tend to yield the highest quality data but are very expensive.
  23. Survey Research Advantages
    –Researchers can collect extensive information fairly quickly.

    –Can be used with many different populations

    –Can be cross-sectional or longitudinal

    –Questions limited only by what people are willing to answer
  24. Survey Research Limitations
    –Data tend to be fairly superficial.

    –Better for extensive than intensive inquiry
  25. Secondary Analysis
    ™Study that uses previously gathered data to address new questions

    ™Can be undertaken with qualitative or quantitative data

    ™Cost-effective; data collection is expensive and time-consuming

    ™Secondary analyst may not be aware of data quality problems and typically faces “if only” issues (e.g., if only there was a measure of X in the dataset).
  26. Methodologic Research
    ™Studies that focus on the ways of obtaining, organizing, and analyzing data

    ™Can involve qualitative or quantitative data


    • –Developing and testing a new data-collection instrument
    • –Testing the effectiveness of stipends in facilitating recruitment
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specific types of research
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