AN SC 200

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hcunning
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250844
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AN SC 200
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2013-12-14 12:47:33
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animal science
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Animal,Science
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An Sc 200 final exam cards
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  1. Community Shared Agriculture
    • - Consumer pays up front at start of season
    • - bins of food delivered to consumer's door
    • - seasonal
  2. The "5 Freedoms"
    • 1. Freedom from hunger + thirst
    • 2. Freedom from discomfort
    • 3. Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
    • 4. Freedom to express normal behaviour
    • 5. Freedom from fear + distress
  3. Yield
    • Measure of Lean meat
    • - only determined for prime and A grade meat
  4. h2
    • Heritability
    • - estimate of the proportion of the differences among individuals in a population that is due to heredity
    • H2=variation due to heredity/total variation
  5. Three Pillars of Traceability
    • 1. Animal/product identification
    • 2. Premises identification
    • 3. Animal/product movement
    • - RFID tags
    • - age verification
  6. Environment Concerns (w/ beef cattle)
    • 1. Grain Production
    • - 80% cattle grain can't be digested by humans
    • 2. Greenhouse gases
    • 3. Manure management
  7. DY
    Double yolked egg
  8. OIE
    • World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties)
    • - sets worldwide standards for animal health and welfare, including shipping and export laws
  9. Bloat
    • - buildup of gases and foam in the rumen
    • - swollen left side of animal
    • - treatment: feed surfactant, get them to release gas (chase them around)
  10. Finishing
    • - done at feedlot
    • - fed high grain, low forage
    • - see weight vs. time graph
  11. Continental Breeds
    • Charolais, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Simmental
    • - larger framed
    • - late maturing
    • - less fat but higher muscle yield
  12. British Breeds
    • Hereford, Angus, Belted Galloway, Jersey
    • - smaller framed
    • - reach maturity earlier
    • - high quality grade
  13. Benefits of local food production
    • - supports local economy
    • - builds social value
    • - increased food security
  14. Online Aggregated Market
    • - shoppers purchase online orders
    • - online store can be from one or many producers
    • - deliver to door or food hubs
  15. Direct to Consumer
    • - relationship marketing
    • - deliver directly to consumer or farm gate sales
    • - provincially-inspected abbatoirs
  16. Game Ranching
    • - extensively managed
    • - managed on natural vegetation
    • - contained but essentially wild
    • - harvested in field
  17. Systems of Ungulate Management
    • - hunting
    • - herding
    • - ranching
    • - farming
  18. Tunnel Ventilation
    • - cools animals by windchill
    • - huge fans, very loud
    • - expensive, so usually have another kind of ventilation as well
    • - negative intake, active exhaust
  19. AFAC
    Alberta Farm Animal Care
  20. ALMA
    Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency
  21. Study of Animal Behaviour and Ethology
    • - important to go where the animals are to study them
    • Ethology: scientific study of animal's behaviour 
    • Greek: ethos -> character
  22. SM5
    • The five supply managed commodities in Canada
    • - dairy milk
    • - broiler chickens
    • - table eggs
    • - turkey
    • - broiler hatching eggs
  23. Welfare vs. Productivity
    • See graph where level of perceived animal welfare vs. livestock productivity, where cruelty comes into place
    • APA: Animal Protection Act (Alberta)
  24. ACTH
    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  25. Performance Indicators:
    1. Biological
    2. Production
    3. Economic
    • 1. Feed conversion, growth rate, liveability
    • 2. Tonnes of feed produced per person per hour, kg chicken/m
    • 3. cost (min), value (max), gross income, net profit, return on investment
  26. Supply Chain
    • Series of interconnected companies that assemble raw materials into a finished product. 
    • Focus: Production
    • Product: Undifferentiated commodities
    • ex. milk, beef, pork, chicken, eggs
  27. DDGS
    Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles
  28. Value Chain
    • A type of supply chain.
    • A string of companies working together to meet market demands.
    • Focus: Consumer
    • Products: High value
    • ex. organic chicken, welfare-certified pork
  29. AFC
    Agriculture and Food Council
  30. ARD
    Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
  31. ANAC
    Animal Nutrition Association of Canada
  32. RBC
    Red blood cell
  33. RFI
    Residual feed intake
  34. RH
    Relative humidity
  35. RIA
    Radio Immunoassay
  36. TGE
    Transmissible gastroenteritis
  37. TH
    Thyroid hormone
  38. SDS
    Sudden Death Syndrome (flip syndrome)
  39. MSQ
    Market share quota
  40. Ig
    Immunoglobulin
  41. IGF
    Insulin-like growth factor
  42. FCR
    Feed conversion rate
  43. FE
    Feed efficiency
  44. FMD
    Foot and mouth disease
  45. ADF
    Acid detergent fibre
  46. CFO
    Confined feeding operations
  47. ELISA
    Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay
  48. LCF
    Least cost formulation
  49. LDA
    Left-displaced abomasum
  50. NFE
    Nitrogen free extract
  51. NSP
    Non-starch polysaccharide
  52. T3
    Triiodothyronine
  53. T4
    Thyroxine
  54. AAFC
    Agriculture and Agrifood Canada
  55. SNS
    Sympathetic Nervous System
  56. SNP
    Single nucleotide polymorphism
  57. SPCA
    Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals
  58. EODES
    Erratic Oviposition and defective egg syndrome
  59. ET
    Embryo transfer
  60. EE
    Ether extract
  61. EFA
    Egg farmers of Alberta
  62. OT
    Oxytocin
  63. OTM
    Over thirty months
  64. PNS
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
  65. PNS
    Peripheral nervous system
  66. PRL
    Prolactin Hormone
  67. Quantitative Genetics
    • (multiple)
    • - action by many pairs of genes
    • - gene expression greatly influenced by environment
    • ex. rate of gain, body type and conformation, egg production, fertility, milk production, carcass quality
  68. NDF
    Neutral detergent fibre
  69. 1. Feed utilization
    2. Feed assimilation
    3. Feed conversion
    • 1. amount of consumed feed entering bloodstream
    • 2. where nutrients go after absorption
    • 3. muscle, fat, bone
  70. CCAC
    Canadian Council on Animal Care
  71. Environmental Effects
    • - non-genetic effects
    • - start to be exerted immediately after conception
    • - have to be reduced in comparing genotypes (standardize test procedures and diets)
  72. CARC
    Canadian Agri-Food Research Council
  73. Animal Welfare
    • Both scientific assessment (objective) and moral judgement (ethics)
    • - the welfare of an animal is its state in regards to its attempt to cope with its environment
  74. Main Welfare Issues: Confinement Housing
    • ex. poultry (laying hens, broilers)
    • sows (gestation stalls, farrowing crates)
    • beef feedlots
    • veal crates
    • horses in stalls
  75. Main Welfare Issues: Painful Procedures and Conditions
    • ex. castration
    • dehorning
    • tail docking

    • conditions like:
    • lameness and mastitis in diary cows, leg problems in broiler chickens
  76. PG
    Prostaglandin
  77. Main Welfare Issues: Handling and Methods at Processing (Slaughter)
    • - handle calmly and humanely to reduce stress
    • - ensure good conditions at arrival
    • - ensure quick, humane kill
  78. Animal Welfare Key Factors
    • Depends on factors like:
    • - knowledge of animal's needs
    • - economics: costs of alternatives, etc.
    • - technology: availability of equipment, drugs
    • - regulations: laws, HACCP programs
    • - values: cost of lifestyle, valuation of animal welfare vs. cheap food
  79. Animal Breeding
    • The application of the sciences of genetics and reproductive physiology to the improvement of animal performance
    • Involves: 
    • - genetics
    • - statistics
    • - physiology 
    • - molecular biology
  80. DOA
    Dead on arrival
  81. BF
    Butterfat
  82. ALF
    Animal libertation front
  83. How to detect cow pregnancy?
    • - preg checking (sweeping pelvic floors looking for embryos)
    • - ultrasound
    • - observation
  84. NE
    Net energy
  85. NEM
    Net energy of maintenance
  86. NEP
    Net energy of production
  87. Industry standard length of calving season?
    63 days
  88. Milk fever
    • "Downer Cow"
    • - low calcium levels, no nerve impulses
    • - inject calcium
    • - common after calving?
  89. PETA
    People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
  90. Acidosis
    • - low rumen pH
    • - occurs during diet change (to more grain based)
    • - diagnosis: uncoordinated animals, diarrhea
    • - treatment: feed forage, or baking soda
  91. U
    Uracil
  92. RP x3
    • - rectal prolapse
    • - retained placenta
    • - retractor penis muscle
  93. RTE
    Ready to eat
  94. BCS
    • Body Condition Score
    • = amount of body fat
    • - high amount of estrogen in fat, so obesity can cause fertility problems
  95. UVJ
    Utero-vaginal junction
  96. WHO
    World Health Organization
  97. Backgrounding
    • - occurs between weaning and finishing
    • - need to build frame
    • - high forage, low grain diet
  98. A
    Adenine
  99. AA
    Amino acid
  100. Breed Compatibility
    • Often cross a British BreedxContinental 
    • - best of both worlds
    • = hybrid vigor
  101. ACP
    Alberta chicken producers
  102. ADH
    Antidiuretic hormone
  103. ANFS
    Agriculture, Food, and Nutritional Science
  104. BSE
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  105. Bos Indicus vs. Bos Taurus
    • Bos Indicus:
    • - hotter climates
    • - hump on shoulder
    • - less tender in regards to marbling
    • Bos Taurus:
    • - colder climates
    • - faster maturing
    • - higher meat quality and feed efficiency
  106. AI x2
    • 1. Artificial insemination
    • 2. Avian influenza
  107. C
    Cytosine
  108. Quality Grades
    • Prime: No yellow fat, slightly abundant marbling
    • A's: No yellow fat, different levels of marbling
    • B's: differences in muscle, sometimes yellow fat
    • D's: differences in age of animal (old)
    • E: bull meat (pronounced masculinity)
  109. CFC
    Chicken Farmers of Canada
  110. Marbling
    degree of intramuscular fat
  111. CNS
    Central nervous system
  112. How many cattle does AB produce?
    40% of the Canadian total
  113. CP
    Crude protein
  114. OTM vs. UTM
    Over thirty months / under thirty months (age of animal)
  115. FSH
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  116. GnRH
    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone
  117. GH
    Growth Hormone
  118. HACCP
    Hazard analysis critical control point
  119. Farmer's Market
    • - weekly market (all year or seasonal)
    • - producer run booths
    • - competition and collaboration among booths
  120. IV
    intravenous
  121. IVF
    In vitro ferilization
  122. IM
    intramuscular
  123. LH
    Lutenizing hormone
  124. ME
    Metabolizable energy
  125. PMSG
    Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin
  126. PMU
    Pregnant mare urine
  127. Positive Pressure Ventilation
    • ex. blowing warm air into a house
    • Active intake, passive exhaust
  128. PSE
    Pale, soft, and exudative (condition of meat)
  129. Negative Pressure Intake
    • - most common type of ventilation
    • - passive air intake, active exhaust (fans)
  130. OFFSAP
    On-farm food safety assurance program
  131. DFD
    Dry, firm, and dark (condition of meat)
  132. DHI
    Dairy herd improvement
  133. ATP
    Alberta Turkey producers
  134. AMP
    Alberta milk producers
  135. Main Issues in Welfare: Transportation
    • -> to sale or to slaughter
    • Long distances, weather conditions, crowding, fighting, loading and unloading
  136. IQF
    Individually quick frozen
  137. FA
    Fatty acid
  138. BCS
    Body condition score
  139. AHEP
    Alberta hatching egg producers
  140. PSS
    Porcine stress syndrome
  141. Questions at the intersection of animal behavior and animal welfare: 
    Penning of Dairy Calves?
    Foie Gras?
    • 1. Play time is good, but you need to be able to manage the spread of disease (scours)
    • 2. Ducks are force fed, get fatty liver disease
  142. FCC
    Farm credit Canada
  143. DE
    Digestable energy
  144. Changes in agricultural productivity?
    • - 20th century: human population increase, industrialization, increase in animal use, decrease in people to raise them
    • - today only 3% of Canadians farm
    • - farms bigger
    • - each farmer produces enough to feed 120 ppl per year
  145. CL
    Corpus luteum
  146. Qualitative genetics
    • (single gene)
    • - trait influenced by one gene only
    • - usually dominance/recessive relationship
    • - traits are minimally or not at all affected by environmental factors
  147. CCP
    Critical control point
  148. PID
    Premises identification
  149. MAK
    Modified atmosphere killing
  150. HD
    Hen Day egg production
  151. HH
    Hen housed egg production
  152. COFFS
    Canadian on-farm food safety program
  153. IP
    Intraperitoneal (ex. injection)
  154. BMP
    Best management practices
  155. BMR
    Basal metabolic rate
  156. AIA
    Alberta institute of agrologists
  157. SRM
    Specified risk materials
  158. CF
    Crude Fibre
  159. JIT
    Just in time
  160. TMR
    Total mixed ration
  161. Ab
    antibody
  162. ACUC-L
    Animal care and use committee for livestock
  163. Two parts of the horse industry?
    • 1. Sport and recreation (demand)
    • 2. Agriculture (supply)
  164. Today's horses bred to be..?
    • Good minded
    • free of unsoundness
    • athletic
    • attractive
  165. Horse Slaughter
    • Horses not bred for meat
    • Important for disposal of horses that are not useful for sport and recreation
  166. Feeding priorities in horses
    • optimum growth
    • cost effective
    • maintaining energy balance
    • body condition scores
    • soundness
    • avoiding nutritional diseases
  167. Nutritional diseases in horses
    • Epiphysitis
    • contracted tendons
    • founder
    • colic
  168. Muscle fitness (horses)
    training increases the oxygen using capacity of muscles (less lactic acid/fatigue)
  169. Horse respiratory system @ rest
    • Breathes 9-15 times per minute
    • O2 uptake of 2L/min
  170. Horse respiratory system during exercise
    • Can breathe up to 140 breaths/min
    • O2 uptake of 60-80L/min
  171. Piglet
    Young pig
  172. Sow
    Female pig
  173. Gilt
    Young female pig that has not yet had piglets
  174. Boar
    Intact male pig
  175. Barrow
    Castrated male pig
  176. Ridgeling
    Boar with one testicle?
  177. Farrowing
    When a sow gives birth to piglets
  178. The hog cycle
    • High hog prices -> Increased hog production -> Low hog prices -> Decreased hog production (back to high hog prices)
    • - Unregulated supply and demand rules
  179. Berkshire pig
    • Bacon-type
    • old time
    • black with white points
    • popular
  180. Chester White pig
    • American
    • "Large whites"
    • Not as big
    • Known for being good mothers
    • Decent litter size
    • Prone to sunburn
  181. Duroc
    • Most popular sire line
    • Extremely lean and hearty
    • Big
  182. Hampshire pig
    • From England
    • Often crossed with Durocs
    • Very lean
    • Ideal type pig
  183. Landrace pig
    • American and Belgian
    • Big, good mothers
    • Crossed with hampshires or durocs
    • Prolific (lots of piglets)
    • Very flat back
  184. Poland China pig
    • Prone to PSE
    • From the USA
    • Big
    • Lots of bone
  185. Yorkshire pig
    • Upright ears
    • English
    • Good feed conversion
  186. Lacombe
    33% Berkshire, 56% Landrace, 21% Chesterwhite
  187. Meishan
    • Good mothers, ~16 piglets
    • Slow growing
    • Fat
  188. Ratites
    • Flightless birds
    • ex. Rhea, ostrich, emu, cassowary, kiwi
  189. Chick
    Very young chicken
  190. Pullet
    Pre-puberty hen
  191. Cockerel
    Pre-puberty rooster
  192. Capon
    Castrated rooster
  193. Cornish Hen
    A chicken that's less than 1kg (usually less than 4wks old) of either sex
  194. Broiler chicken
    Between 1kg and 2.5kg (4-6wks)
  195. Roaster chicken
    >2.5kg (older than 6wks)
  196. Poult
    Very young turkey
  197. Female turkey (pre-puberty and mature)
    Hen
  198. Male Intact Turkey (pre-puberty and mature)
    Tom
  199. Hokie
    Castrated turkey
  200. 3 Pillars of Poultry Quota
    • 1. Controlling what comes into Canada
    • 2. Producers set their own price
    • 3. Production Dicipline
  201. At what age do table egg laying hens start laying eggs?
    20 wks
  202. Holstein-Friesen cattle
    • Produce 95% of Canada's dairy milk
    • X amount of butterfat produced/day
    • From Germany and Holland
    • Large cows
    • Eat more feed
    • Good milk production, no calving problems
  203. Guernsey cattle
    • From island of Guernsey
    • Selected for heartiness
    • Higher BF, lower kg milk produced
    • Calm
    • Red and white
  204. Jersey cattle
    • Smaller
    • Dark points
    • Higher BF content
    • Good if you're shipping cream
    • Most prone to milk fever
  205. Milking Shorthorn cattle
    • Triple purpose cow (milk, meat, draught [labor])
    • Selection for milking (regionally)
  206. Ayrshire cattle
    • 2nd most popular
    • Red and white
    • Speckled
    • From Scotland
  207. Brown Swiss cattle
    • From Switzerland
    • Triple purpose cow
  208. Canadienne
    • Hearty
    • Very small
    • Very docile 
    • Developed in a Monestary in the early 1800's
  209. Mastitis
    Inflammation of the mammary gland
  210. Lamb
    Very young sheep
  211. Ewe
    female sheep
  212. Ram
    Intact male sheep
  213. Wether
    Castrated male sheep
  214. Lambing
    When a ewe gives birth to lambs
  215. Crutching
    Shearing around crotch of sheep
  216. Muelsing
    Cutting strips of skin around sheep's butt to create scar tissue to prevent too much fleece growing there
  217. Flushing
    Increase the plain of nutrition to increase ovulation (in sheep)
  218. Kid
    Very young goat
  219. Kidding
    When a female goat gives birth to kids
  220. Doe
    Female goat
  221. Buck/billy
    Male goat
  222. Chevon
    Goat meat
  223. Lambing Percentage
    (# lambs/# ewes) x 100
  224. Suffolk sheep
    • Most popular sheep in North America
    • Long straight back, long legs
    • Big 
    • Hearty
    • Fast growing
    • Lambing %: 180%
    • Bad wool
    • Open faced sheep
  225. Hampshire sheep
    • Fast growing
    • Larger lamb size (=more lambing probs)
    • Lambing %: 160%
    • Similar to Suffolk
  226. Dorset sheep
    • Has horns (horned) or can have none (polled)
    • Lambing %: 180%
    • Will breed at most times of the year
    • - most sheep breed when daylight decreases
  227. Cheviot sheep
    • From Scotland
    • Polled
    • Very heavy fleece
    • Lambing %: 180%
    • Came from Merino stock
  228. Merino sheep
    • From Spain
    • Long fleece
    • Fine wool
    • Lambing %: 125%
    • Select for litter size
    • Slow growing, medium size
  229. Lincoln sheep
    • Prone to wool blindness
    • Fine haired
    • Heavy fleece
    • Lambing %: 140%
    • Popular in England and Scotland
  230. Finnish Landrace
    • Maternal line
    • Lambing %: 350%
    • Nothing else is good (bad wool, bad meat)
    • Crossbred in female line
  231. Romanov sheep
    • Russian
    • Lambing %: 250%
    • Bad wool, bad meat
    • Sexually mature at 3 months of age
    • Record # of lambs in Canada: 9
  232. Jakob's Sheep
    • Lots of horns
    • Lots in Scotland and Middle East
    • Lambing %: 250%
    • Large
  233. Karakul
    • Middle East
    • C-section, then kill before birth and take hide
    • - Persian lambs
  234. Nubian goat
    • Floppy ears
    • Swayed back
    • Dark coloured, not prone to sunburn
    • Good milk production
  235. Saanen Goat
    • Dairy goat
    • From Switzerland
    • Sunburn easily
    • Work better in cool conditions
    • Big
  236. Toggenburg goat
    • Most popular
    • Perky ears and tail
    • Used for dairy
    • Hearty
  237. Spanish (Meat) Goats
    • Bad temperment
    • Heavy fleece
    • Meat goats
    • Horns
  238. Boer goats
    • From South Africa
    • Very meaty
    • Imported as embryos
  239. Angora goats
    • Prone to wool blindness
    • Well-developed fleece
  240. Pygmy goat
    • Small
    • Hobby stock
  241. Lairage
    Holding of animals in a vehicle before slaughter
  242. Dressing percentage
    = (hot or cold carcass weight/live weight) x 100
  243. Biofilm
    Bacteria build a coating that sticks to surfaces and won't just wash off, must be scrubbed
  244. Rendering
    The cooking down of carcasses
  245. MDM
    Mechanically deboned meat
  246. MSM
    Mechanically separated meat
  247. Definition of Health
    The state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
  248. Disease
    Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system

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