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1. What is the main job of the respiratory system?
1. to bring oxygen oxygen into the body (for cells), and to bring carbon dioxide out.
What are the two types of respiration? explain each!
1. External respiration- occurs in the lungs. It is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air inhaled into the lungs AND to the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries.
2. Internal respiration- occurs all over the body. It is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the BLOOD in the capillaries all over the body, and ALL the CELLS and TISSUES.
1. What is the nasal septum?
2. What are turbinates?
3. What is the nasal meatus?
1. a midline wall that separates the left nasal passage from the right.
2. Thin scroll like bones. They warm, humidfy air, and prevent foreign debris from coming in.
3. the nasal passageways through the turbinates. There is 3 on each side.
1. What are paranasal sinuses?
2. What is the pharynx?
3. What is the larynx?
1.They are outpouchings of nasal passages that are contained within spaces of certain skull bones. They have a ciliated lining to prevent debris from getting in.
2. "the throat". It opens into the trachea and esophagus. There is a oropharynx (passageway) and a nasopharynx (passageway).
3. "the voice box". It is complex and made of many cartilages. It helps makes sure food/liquid doesn't go down into the airway.
1. What is a cough?
2. What is an endotracheal intubation?
3. What is roaring in horses?
1. the glottis closes, building up pressure in the thorax. Then the glottis opens, releasing a burst of air.
2. an endotracheal tube in inserted through the glottis and advanced down into the trachea to keep an airway open (for anesthesia ect.)
3. laryngeal hemiplegia. It is the paralysis of half of the larynx. The vocal chord and arytenoid cartilage is paralyzed, so the vocal chord just "flaps in the wind". During exercise, the paralyzed vocal chord can obstruct the glottis each time the animal inhales.
1. What is aspiration pneumonia?
2. What is the trachea?
3. What keeps the trachea open/supported?
1. an inflammatory condition of the lungs because of an inhalation of a foreign material. (ex: oral liquid medications administered too rapidly)
2. a windpipe. a short, wide tube that extends from the larynx to the thorax.
3. Hyaline cartilage rings, and it also is made up of smooth muscle & fibrous tissue
1. What is tracheal collapse?
2. What do the alveoli do?
3. What is surfactant?
1. The space between in C-shaped tracheal rings is wider than normal. When the animal inhales, the widened area of smooth muscle gets sucked down into the lumen of the trachea and partially blocks it. It results in a dry honking cough and dyspnea. (common in toy breeds)
2. alveoli is where external respiration takes place. It is where oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged between the blood and the air.
3. It lines the alveoli and helps reduce surface tension. It prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
1. What is the heart?
2. What is the mediastinum?
3. What is the interpleural space?
1. a pump. The pumping of the heart keeps blood moving through the body to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells that need it.
2. the space between the 2 pleural cavities. It is it's own cavity that contains the heart, trachea, esophagus..ect)
3. what the mediastinum is also called b/c it is inbetween the 2 pleural spaces.
1. What is the pericardium?
2.What is epicardium?
3. What is myocardium?
4. What is endocardium?
5.What is hardware disease?
1. a double walled membrane on the outside of the heart. It has 2 layers: the fibrous pericardium(tough external layer) and the serous pericardium(the inner layer which is divided into the parietal and visceral).
2. outermost heart wall layer. It is part of the serous pericardium.
3. It's inside the sac formed by the pericardium. It is the cardiac muscle. (its striated)
4. a thin, membranous lining between the myocardium and the chambers and valves of the heart. (lines the chambers and vales of the heart)
5. Cattle ingest foreign metallic objects. The bits of hardware are ingested into the rumen. A magnet is put in to prevent any tears from metal objects in the cows stomach.
1. What is pericardial effusion?
2. What is cardiac tamponade?
3. What is the hilus?
4. How does the heart squeeze?
1. fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac. (from infection,inflammation, or hemorrage)
2. the pericardial space is overfilled with fluid. The heart becomes unable to expand normally between contractions. (leads to decreased cardiac output)
3. the place where things go in and out of (blood vessels, lymph vessels ect.)
4. It squeezes from the apex to the base
1. What is patent ductus ateriosus?
2. What happens in systole?
3. What happens during diastole?
4. What is the sinoatrial node?
- 1. The shortcut opening between the pulmonary artery and aorta, known as the ductus ateriosus, failed to close in the newborn. It causes inadequate oxygen supply in their blood.
- 2. the heart muscle contracts, blood is ejected from the atrium-->ventricles-->arteries.
- 3. the heart relaxes and refills with blood.
- 4. located in the right atrium and the pacemaker of the heart.
1. What is the atrioventricular node? (AV node)
2. How does the "conduction system" or electrical current produced by the SA node travel from the atria to the ventricles (base->apex). On the "fast route"..
1. the only route of conduction of the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles.
2. Its travels to the AV node-->bundle of His-->purkinje fibers-->ventricles
1. What is the moderator band?
2. What does the fibrous ring do?
3. What is a ECG?
- 1. located in the right ventricle. Keeps the ventricles from over stretching.
- *it may prevent overfilling of the right side of the heart.
2. does not let conduction go through.
3. shows the electrical activity of the heart. But, it does NOT provide any info regarding blood flow or cardiac output of the heart.
1.What is P?
2.What is QRS?
3.What is T?
4.What does depolarize?
5.What does repolarize mean?
1. atrial depolarization (atria contract)
- 2. ventricular depolarization (atria repolarize)
- 3. ventricles repolarize
- 4. "contraction"/"beat"= depolarization
- 5."charge up" = repolarization
1. What is the chordae tendineae?
2. What is Starling's law?
3. Which side of the heart is thicker?
1. special chords that prevent the valves from flipping backwards.
2. the heart is like a rubber band. The more it fills with blood, the more it's stretched. With increasing stretch, the heart beats more powerfully..it the heart is chronically overstretched..the heart will get too stretched out and fail. (dilatative cardiomyopathy=DCM)
3. The left side! it pushes blood to the body/extremities.
1. How many arteries and veins does a fetus' heart/circulation have?
2.What are 3 adaptions in a fetus circulation?
3) what does the umbilical artery do?
1. 2 arteries and 1 vein.
- 2. 1) ductus venosus
- 2) foramen ovale
- 3) ductus arteriosus
- 3. It brings blood back to the placenta (babies circulation is backwards!!!)
Explain blood circulation in a fetus.
1. Oxygenated blood flows from the umbilical vein
to the liver
and ductus venosus
. The ductus venosus allows blood to bypass liver.
2.Then from the ductus venosus
-->caudal vena cava
and fills the right atrium
3. Most of the blood flows through the foramen ovale
to the left atrium. BUT, some blood will continue to flow through the tricuspid valve
and to the right ventricle
- 4. Blood from the pulmonary artery may flow into the lungs or through another bypass the ductus arteriosus which does directly to the aorta. *remember this blood was oxygenated as it passed through the placenta.
- 5. aorta--> fetal systemic circulation.
- 6. deoxygenated blood-->sent back to placenta through umbilical arteries.
1. What happens after fetus is born? (circulation wise)
2. What equation explains cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume?
1. The lungs inflate. The newborn begins to oxygenate it's own blood. Normally, the ductus venosus constricts so that blood no longer bypasses the liver. The foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus close so blood no longer bypasses the lungs.
2. CO= SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate)
1. What is cardiac output?
2. What is stroke volume?
3. What is heart rate?
4. What are 3 main arteries that serve the body?
1. the amount of blood that leaves the heart.
2. the amount of blood ejected with each cardiac contraction.
3. how often the heart contracts
4. celiac artery, cranial mesenteric, and caudal mesenteric. They go to an organ then through the portal vein-->liver-->vena cava
1. How many carotid arteries do we have?
2. Where does the femoral vein change to the saphenous vein?
3. what is the bronchiole tree and what is a terminal bronchiole?
1. 4 carotid arteries (2 internal, 2 external)
2. when it hits the stifle.
3. a bronchiole tree has branches, that stem from 2 main bronchi/bronchus. A terminal bronchiole is a branch on that tree.
1. Name all the WBC's from most abundant to lease abundant.
2. Plasma consists of what 3 things?
3. What does oncotic means?
1. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils.
2. Globulins, Albumins, and Fibrinogen.
3. osmotic pressure generates by colloids (albumin) [like osmosis but w/o a membrane)
1. What is a hemoglobin molecule? What is it made of?
2. What color top is a plasma tube? What color top is a serum tube?
3. What is a reticulocyte?
1. Gives RBC's their red color
b/c the nucleus in there. It allows them to carry large amounts of oxygen. The hemoglobin molecule is made up of 4 protein molecules binded together
. (oxygen can attach to each molecule)
- 2. plasma= purple.
- serum= red.
3. it is a polychromatophil. It is blue in color, and gets kicked out of the bone marrow to become a erythrocyte (RBC).
1. Name 3 functions of blood.
2. What is blood classified as?
3. What is a bilirubin?
- 1. 1)Blood is a transport system (carries oxygen and nutrients ect, to every living cell in the body)
- 2) Blood is a regulatory system. (regulation of body temperature)
- 3) Blood is a defense system (wbc's provide defense)
2. a connective tissue.
3. a breakdown product of hemoglobin. it is yellow.
1. What is serum vs. plasma?
2. What are erythrocytes (RBC's)?
3. What are thrombocytes?(platelets)
4. What are leukocytes? (WBC's)
1. Plasma contains fibrinogen
. Serum is clotted
up and does not
2. carries oxygen from lungs-->tissues and cells in the body.
3. not real cells. they help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels.
- 4. 5 diff types and named by how granules stain. Neutrophils(neither blue nor red stain), Leukocytes(no granules), Monocytes (no granules), Eosinophils (red granules), Basophils (blue granules).
- **agranulocytes = monocytes and leukocytes.
1. What is a postprandial lipemia?
2. what is hematopoiesis?
3. what is erythropoietin?
4. how do you judge how much blood is in an animal?
1. If you eat before a blood test, plasma may appear cloudy, due to fats from digested food being suspended in the plasma. It is unsuitable for analysis.
2. blood cell formation in the bone marrow.
3. a hormone kidneys make because they detect low levels of oxygen in the blood. This hormone stimulates the products of more RBC's.
4. assume 50-100ml (average 75ml) of blood per every kg of body weight.
1. What is erythropoiesis?
2. What is PCV?
1. red cell production (RBC).
2. Packed cell volume test. It allows the percentage of RBC's to be determined. Too many RBC's and little plasma= dehydration. Too much plasma and very little RBC's= anemia.
1. What percentage of oxygen is there in atmospheric air?
2. is CO2 and acid or base?
3. What is a respiratory tract infection?
1. 21% oxygen.
3. It is an infection of their the upper resp. tract (nasal passages, larynx, pharynx, teacher) or lower resp. tract (lungs). Lower is more dangerous because its harder to expel fluid and mucous.
1. What is pneumothorax?
2. what is tidal volume?
3. what is minute volume?
4. what is residual volume?
1. it is the presence of free air in the thorax. The lung falls away from the thoracic wall, and since nothing is holding it into place any longer, the lung collapses.
2. the volume of air inspired and expired during 1 breath.
3. the volume of air inspired and expired during 1 minute.
4. the volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum respiration. (air has to stay in there or lungs would collapse)
1. What is a sneeze?
2. What is a hiccup?
3. What is a yawn and a sign?
1. burst of air directed through the nose and mouth in effort to eliminate the irritant.
2. diaphragm spasms followed by the closing of the glottis, causing the "hiccup" sound.
3.a yawn is a slow deep breath taken with a wide mouth (boredom, fatigue ect)
4. a slightly deeper breath than normal.
1. What is mechanical control in the lungs?
2. What is chemical control in the lungs?
1. stretch receptors in the lungs that set limits on routine resting inhaling and exhaling. It does this to maintain a normal, rythemic, breathing pattern. *automatic
2. The control of co2, pH, and o2. If co2 rises, the pH will fall, and respiration is increased because blood is becoming too acidic.
If the co2 falls, and pH rises, blood isn't acidic enough, so respiration rate will decrease.
1.What are neutrophils?
2. what are eosinophils?
3. what are basophils?
4. what are monocytes?
5. what are b-cells?
6. what are t-cells?
1. most common, granules don't stain. They are phagocytic.
2. fuction is allergic reactions and parasites. Their granules stain red.
3. Their function is initiation of immune and allergic reactions. Their granules stain blue.
4. they are phagocytic and process antigens. They don't have granules.
5. a lymphocyte. No granules. antibody production and humoral immunity.
6. a lymphocyte. No granules. cell mediated immunity.
1. What is leukemia caused by?
2. What is a total WBC count?
3. What is a differential count?
4. What can a stress response cause?
1. growth/production of one of the WBC's. But they are abnormal wbc's.
2. The total population of WBC's.
3. % of each type of WBC.
4. An increased number of neutrophils.
1. What is the lymphatic system?
2. What are 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
1. a series of ducts/vessels that carry excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart..so then the fluid can be put back into the blood stream.
- 2. 1)removal of excess tissue fluid
- 2)waste material transport
- 3)filtration of lymph (microorganisms get filtered out in lymph nodes)
- 4)protein transport
1. What does the spleen do?
2. What does the thymus do?
3. What does the tonsils do?
1. The spleen has red pulp and white pulp. In the red pulp it acts as a reservoir for blood when an animal doesn't need it at rest. The white pulp has lymphoid tissue that holds lymphocytes which can clone themselves in there.
2. a lymphoid organ that produced t-cells.
3. nodules of lymphoid tissue that prevent the spread of infection into the respiratory or digestive systems(mature lymphocytes live in them)
1. What is GALT? (Gut associated lymph tissue)
2. what does immune mediated diseases mean?
3. What are 3 functions of the immune system?
1. lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the intestine. It is to make sure you don't get sick from your own bacteria.
2. your immune system malfunctions and attacks itself because it doesn't recognize it. ex: lupus
- 3. 1)phagocytosis of foriegn cells.
- 2) inactivation of pathogenic organisms/chem. substances
- 3) clumping (agglutination) or cells/molecules
1. What is non specific immunity?
2. What is specific immunity?
1. non specific immunity: first line of defense against foreign invaders is skin, mucous membranes. the second line of defense is: inflammatory response, phagocytosis (neutrophils & monocytes), and natural killer cells.
2. specific immunity is the third line of defense. by using B-cells that make antibodies again antigens (humoral immune response). Also, by using T-cells which actually fight antigens (cell mediated immune response)
1. What antibody is in 1st response? 2nd response?
2. what are all the antibodies in order of response.
1. IgM = 1st. then IgG= second.
2. IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE (allergic response), IgD.
1. What is passive immunity?
2. What is active immunity?
3. What is colostrum?
1. administering antibodies that the animal didn't produce on it's own.
2. vaccinate, so an animal can make it's own antibodies to fight a disease off.
3. antibody rich first milk. (passive immunity)
1. What is humoral immunity?
2. What is cell mediated immunity?
1. It is anti-body mediated immunity. B-cells produce anti-bodies to fight antigens. (*most effective against bacteria, toxins, and viruses outside body cells).
2. T-cells directly attack the invading antigen. (*most effective against viruses that infect body cells, cancer cells, and foreign tissue cells)
1. What is SaO2?
2. What is SpO2
3. What is the most common WBC in a horse?
4. what is the primary hematology stain?
1. the direct measurement of oxygen content in the blood. ex: arterial blood gas sampling.
2. the indirect measurement of the oxygen content of the blood (oximetry)