Arch 270 Week 11

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  1. Hominid Hair Loss
    • -humans have two types of lice, pubic and head lice
    • -pubic lice is similar to gorilla lice, suggests loss of body hair before 3 MYA
    • -pubic hair serves unknown purpose (ornament, pheromone trap, friction)
  2. Aquatic Ape
    • -one of 3 theories for hominid hair loss
    • -we had a semi-aquatic lifestyle based on foraging in shallow water
  3. Temperature Regulation
    • -one of 3 theories for hair loss
    • -allows increased heat loss, supported by sweating efficiency
  4. Parasite Restriction
    • -one of 3 theories for hominid hair loss
    • -lost hair to limit annoying and potentially harmful parasites
  5. Osteodontokeratic Tools
    • -introduced by raymond dart
    • -possible toolkit for Australopithecus africanus 
    • -hypothetical only
    • -animal bone (osteo), teeth (donto), antler/horn (keratic)
    • -Makapansgat (south africa) littered with broken faunal material
    • -most scholars skeptical of claims
  6. Cyptocrystalline Structure
    • -fine grained homogenous stones that flake ina predictable manner
    • -chert, flint, obsidian, basalt, quartzite
  7. Conchoidal Fracture
    -conical fracture producing a smooth, curved surface radiating outwards from the point of impact
  8. Core
    -a rock that has at least one flake taken off of it
  9. Flake
    -must have bulb of percussion (raised area directly below striking platform)
  10. Hard Hammer Percussion
    • -use of a hammerstone to remove short, deep flakes during flintknapping
    • -the flakes can then be worked further and the core could be used as a tool
  11. Bipolar Knapping
    • -hard hammer percussion in which both an anvil stone and hammerstone are used to detach flakes from a cobble (the core)
    • -may be earliest hominid knapping technique
  12. Soft Hammer Percussion
    -use of soft hammer (antler, bone) to produce more specialized tools by removing thin flakes from edges or faces
  13. Pressure flaking
    • -removal of very thin flakes by applying pressure with a pointed piece of wood or bone 
    • -refines tools 
    • -resharpens cutting edge
  14. Olduwan stone tool industry(general)
    • -2.5-1.5 MYA 
    • -lower paleolithic 
    • -simple flakes from unmodified cores
    • -hard hammer percussion
    • -named after Olduvai gorge(tanzania) 
    • -associated with Homo habilis and H rudolfensis
  15. Pre-Olduwan
    • -2.5-2.0MYA
    • -oldest known
    • -could have been preceded by an earlier "shatter" phase, unrecognizable archeologically
    • -H habilis and H rudolphensis 
    • -bipolar knapping
  16. Classic Olduwan
    • -1.9-1.6MYA
    • -hard hammer percussion, both a continuation of bipolar knapping and addition of hard hammer percussion(stone held in one hand and struck)
    • -chopper/chopping tools
    • -discoids
    • -burins(chisel like)
    • -manuports
  17. Developed Olduwan
    • -1.6-1.5MYA
    • -addition of proto-bifaces
    • -transitional to Acheulian?
    • -Homo erectus
  18. Homo erectus
    • -1.8 MYA-53KYA
    • -950CC cranial capacity (70% of modern humans)
    • -cranial capacity began increasing 700KYA
  19. Ancestral H erectus Cranial Traits
    • -prognathic face
    • -pronounced nuchal crest (strong neck muscles)
    • -postorbital constriction
    • -large supraorbital tori
    • -no chin
    • -large thick jaws and teeth
    • -long low skull(football shaped)
    • -sagittal keel
    • -thick cranial vault(adaptation for blunt force trauma)
    • -greatest width at base (temporal bones)
  20. Ancestral postcranial H erectus traits
    • -narrow pelvis, but extensive postnatal growth
    • -similar limb proportions to humans
    • -robust
  21. Homo ergaster
    • -sometimes given name of more modern african H erectus
    • -thinner, higher cranial vault
    • -1100CC cranial capacity
    • -reduced prognathism
    • -less pronounced nuchal crest and brow ridges
    • -no sagittal keel
    • -smaller teeth
  22. Dmanisi
    • -Georgia
    • -numerous H erectus fossils, most physically similar to African forms
    • -identical olduwan toolkits
    • -one skull has small 546 CC and prognathic face, more similar to H habilis(possibly suggesting single Homo lineage)
  23. Zhoukoudian
    • -chinese sight
    • -many H erectus found, very similar to Java specimens
  24. Gran Dolina
    • -Atapuerca (Spain)
    • -similar to H ergaster 
    • -1000CC
    • -some say new species, other H erectus or H heidelbergensis
  25. Pleistocene Epoch
    • -1.8-.01MYA
    • -drop in worldwide temps
    • -extensive fluctuation
    • -glacial periods, which are interrupted by interstadials
    • -interglacial periods are interrupted by stadial
  26. H erectus behaviour
    • -used fire (perhaps only opportunistically)
    • -ate meat, either scavenged or hunted(unclear)
    • -more advanced tools (Acheulian began 1.6MYA)
  27. H erectus Speak?
    • -had hemispheric specialization 
    • -left side for language and symbol use
    • -broca and wernicke present
    • -thoracic vertebral canal was still smaller, less control of breathing patterns
    • -basicranium was flexed like humans(bent larynx, lower larynx larger range of sounds)
  28. H floresiensis
    • -38-18KYA
    • -less than 1M tall
    • -400CC 
    • -some say new species, others insular dwarfism or disease
    • -simple stone tools
    • -entire island was messed up
  29. Pithecanthropus erectus
    -original name proposed for H erectus
  30. Nariokotome
    • -Kenya
    • -where 80% complete H erectus was found
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Arch 270 Week 11
2013-12-05 04:32:25
Arch 270 Week 11

Arch 270 Week 11
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