Arch 270 Week 12

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jaz584
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Arch 270 Week 12
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2013-12-05 13:02:56
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Arch 270 Week 12
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  1. Archaic H sapiens
    • -aka premodern, transitional 
    • -intermediate between ergaster and modern H sapiens
    • -500-100KYA
    • -some call H heidelbergensis
  2. Archaic H sapiens Physical Traits
    • -1250CC (85-90% modern humans)
    • -receding chin and forehead
    • -broad mandibular ramus
    • -more vertical occiput than H erectus
    • -smaller teeth than H erectus
    • -less prognathic face than H erectus
    • -large supraorbital tori
    • -reduced postorbital constriction
    • -reduced cranial robusticity 
    • -widest at parietal region
    • -decline in postcranial robusticity
  3. Bodo d'Ar
    • -nearly complete cranium of archaic H sapiens
    • -600KYA
    • -exhibit cut marks (defleshing?)
    • -africa
  4. Broken Hill
    • -zambia, africa
    • -1280CC
    • -severe dental disease 
    • -traumatic puncture wound
    • -used to induce racism against africans (when it was believed only 40K years old)
  5. Steinheim
    • -Germany
    • -archaic H sapien
    • -200KYA
    • -1200CC
  6. Swanscombe
    • -England
    • -300-400KYA
    • -1300CC (early neanderthal)
    • -female
  7. Petralona
    • -Greece
    • -240-160KYA
    • -over 1200CC
  8. Arago
    • -France
    • -400-250KYA
    • -1150CC
    • -several fragmented cranium
  9. Dali
    • -China
    • -200KYA
    • -1100-1200CC
  10. Narmada Valley
    • -India
    • -200KYA
    • -1300CC
  11. Neander Valley
    • -Germany
    • -first neandethals found
  12. Cranial Traits of neanderthal
    • -1500CC(1350-1400 for humans)
    • -large, prognathic face
    • -wide set eyes
    • -massive nasal area (aperture and sinuses) for warming cold air
    • -large supraorbital tori
    • -bulging parietals (also widest here)
    • -long, low cranium
    • -sloping forehead
    • -receding chin
    • -robust mandible
    • -large teeth with taurodontism
  13. Postcranial Neanderthal
    • -robust and muscular 
    • -thick long bone coritces 
    • -large joints
    • -short distal segments of limbs(keep mass to center)
    • -thick ribbed barrel chests
    • -specialized pelvis
  14. Neanderthal Climate
    • -glacial period was about 120KYA and peaked 20KYA
    • -covered most of northern Eurasia(neanderthal area)
    • -south of glaciers were grasslands with loess dunes and megafauna
  15. Neanderthal Distribution
    • -Europe and western Asia
    • -NOT africa, south or east asia
  16. La Chapelle
    -French Neanderthal
  17. Krapina
    -Croatian neanderthal
  18. Shanidar
    -Iraq neanderthal
  19. Denisovans
    • -Siberia Altai mountains
    • -from two teeth and a hand bone
    • -50-30KYA
    • -large contribution to genetics in SE asia
    • -low genetic diversity
  20. Red Deer Cave People
    • -Longlin Cave, China
    • -14.3-11.5KYA
    • -mix of modern and primitive features
    • -modern: rounded brain case, modern frontal lobes, short flat face, regular brain size
    • -ancestral: large brow ridges, thick skull, primitive parietal lobes, large molars, broad nose, prognathic jaw
  21. Homo alive 50KYA?
    -modern humans, Denisovans, Neanderthals, Red Deer cave people, H erectus, and H floresiensis
  22. Olduwan association?
    • -H habilis
    • -H rudolfensis
    • -lower paleolithic
  23. Acheulian association?
    • -H erectus
    • -H ergaster
    • -lower paleolithic
  24. Mousterian associated with?
    • -european archaic H sapiens
    • -neanderthals 
    • -middle paleolithic
  25. Acheulian Tool Industry
    • -1.6MYA
    • -involved removing of smaller flakes
    • -named after St Acheul, France where it was identified
  26. Acheulian Hand axes
    • -tapered, bifacial multi purpose tools
    • -almond shaped
    • -characteristic of acheulian industry
    • -early hand axes much more crude
  27. Acheulian cleavers
    -large hand axes with a flat chopping edge
  28. Movius Line
    • -line where stone tools seems to end
    • -Northern India
    • -could be a reflection of raw materials(bamboo), technological bottleneck,  or H erectus migration into East asia
  29. Mousterian tool Industry
    • -similar to acheulian
    • -used by archaic H sapiens
    • -more retouching of flakes 
    • -200KYA-40KYA
    • -named after Le Moustier, France
  30. Lavallois Technique
    • -mousterian industry
    • -process of preparing a core in order to strike off consistently shaped and ready to use flakes
    • -core is rounded and flaked until it is ready to use
  31. Clothing use?
    • -human head and body lice diverged 190KYA
    • -suggests first appearance of tailored clothing
  32. Schoningen
    • -site in Germany
    • -wooden spears found
    • -2M long
    • -sharpened and tapered like modern javelins
    • -400KYA
  33. Shanidar 1
    • -Iraq
    • -paralyzed right arm, blind in left eye
    • -community sustained him instead of letting him die
    • -compassion
  34. La Chapell-aux-saints
    • -France
    • -arthritic old man
    • -again compassion
  35. El Sidron Cave
    • -Spain
    • -possible evidence of human processing(cannibalism)
    • -possibility of contributing to neanderthals demise(genocide, prion disease)
  36. Neanderthal Culture
    • -had art, music and body adornment
    • -shown to be independently developed
  37. Neanderthal Speech
    • -hyoid bone identical to humans
    • -FOXP2 gene 
    • -lacked quantal hallmark (distinguish between beat and bit)
  38. Modern Humans
    • -first appeared in Africa
    • -200-100KYA
    • -small face
    • -protruding chin
    • -rounded cranium with high forehead
    • -smaller teeth
    • -gracile skeleton
  39. Out of Africa
    • -modern humans evolved from single local
    • -replaced all pre existing hominoids while colonizing the world
    • -all modern population differences are all recent in origin
    • -recent common ancestor
  40. Multiregional Hypotheses
    • -developed from archaic predecessors throughout Eurasia
    • -remained single species through gene flow
    • -suggests interbreeding with modern humans from africa
    • -common ancestor is H erectus
  41. Assimilation Model
    -third way humans may have spread
  42. Herto
    • -Ethiopia 
    • -160KYA 
    • -skull
    • -archaic: wide spaced orbits, large brow ridges
    • -modern: long high cranium, 1450CC
  43. Omo 1 and 2
    • -Ethiopia
    • -195KYA
    • -Omo 1 is completely modern
    • -Omo 2 archaic: long narrow cranium, receding forehead, prominent brow ridges
  44. Cro-Magnon
    • -France
    • -30KYA
    • -type site for anatomically modern humans in Europe
    • -1600CC
  45. Lagar Velho
    • -Portugal
    • -25KYA
    • -modern cranium and mandible of 4 year old boy
    • -very robust neanderthal like postcranial skeleton
  46. Mladec
    • -Czech Republic
    • -32-33KYA
    • -five modern humans, some with neanderthal traits
    • -low cranium, heavy brow ridges
    • -child postcranially robust
  47. Skhul and Qafzeh
    • -Israel 
    • -90KYA
    • -possibly indicate hybridization
    • -prognathism and large supraorbital tori
    • -predate most neanderthal sites
  48. Liujiang
    • -China
    • -60-100KYA
    • -earliest H sapiens discovered in east asia
    • -somewhat disproves Out of Africa hypothesis
  49. Neanderthal DNA
    • -99.7% identical to modern DNA
    • -1-4% of modern eurasian genome comprised of neanderthal DNA
    • -closer to NON africans than africans
  50. Baringo
    • -Kenya
    • -worlds oldest blade tools
    • -240KYA
  51. Katanda
    • -Zaire
    • -bone tools 90KYA

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