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Occurs when Criminals believe that the opportunity blocking one type of criminal activity, is also aimed at other types of criminal activity.
ex: a camera aimed at stopping prostitution, is placed where drug dealers also sell drugs. so they stop selling in that area.
Occurs when individuals channel their energies towards a common purpose and accomplish what they couldn't do alone.
Vocab: Target Hardening
making potential objectives of criminals more difficult to obtain.
this is done through the use of improved locks, alarm systems, and security cameras.
Vocab: CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design)
Crime Prevention Though Environmental Design
Altering the physical environment to enhance safety, reduce incidence and fear of crime, and improve the quality of life
Example: trimming bushes and trees so that burglars are more easily seen trying to break in
Vocab: Gateway Theory
Teaches that milder illicit drugs (like Marijuana)
lead directly to experimentation with and an addiction to hard drugs. (like Cocaine and heroin)
differs from Stepping stone theory in that the Gateway theory the user makes the choice, stepping stone the user has a chemical change in their brain and nervous system
There is no evidence of this
Vocab: stepping stone theory
Similar to Gateway theory
In this theory, cannabis use would lead to neurophysiology changes, thus creating the need to move on to the use of other drugs.
This theory has been completely dismissed by research.
Vocab: DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)
was not an effective program
- a program aimed at elementary-age school children. seeking to teach them to say
- "no to drugs"
Vocab: Open Drug Market
Dealers Sell to all potential customers, eliminating only those suspected of being police officers or some other threat. - see Also Closed Drug Markets
Vocab: Closed Drug Market
Dealers sell only to people they know or who are vouched for by other buyers. See also Open Drug Market
- Occurs when a student intentionally or unintentionally reveals clues to an impending violent act.
- may be feelings, thoughts, fantasies attitudes, or intentions of the act.
Vocab: Veiled Threat
One that strongly implies but does not explicitly threaten violence.
Vocab: Conditional Threat
a type of threat often seen in extortion cases;
warns that a violent act will happen unless certain demands or terms are met.
Vocab: Direct Threats
- Identifies a specific act against a specific target.
- this is done in a straightforward, clear, and explicit manner.
Vocab: Indirect threats
Tend to be vague, unclear, and ambiguous threats.
the plan, intended victim, motivation, and other aspects of the threat are masked or ambiguous.
Name Calling, fistfights, purposeful ostracism, extortion, character assassination, repeated physical attacks, and sexual harassment; also called Peer child abuse
Vocab: Street gang
A group of people whose allegiance is based on social needs, who have an identifiable leadership, who claim control over a specific territory in the community, and who engage in criminal acts that affect the public
An ongoing group of people that form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity. See also Street Gang and youth gang
Vocab: Youth Gang
A subgroup of a street gang; may refer to a juvenile clique within a gang
Strategy to address the gang problem
includes tactics such as prevention, arrest, imprisonment, supervision, and surveillance.
a prejudice that inhibits objectivity: can evolve into hate
Vocab: Hate Crime
- a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated by an offenders bias against a race, religion, ethnic/national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation
- also known as bias crime
is a behavior. (acting on a prejudice)
- example of Discrimination: treating certain
- groups with preferentially...
is an attitude or belief towards certain groups
Vocab: Straw purchasers
Weapons buyers fronting for people linked to illegal gun trafficking
Example: a person buying a gun that is later going to be sold illegally to a felon
Vocab: Community Policing
a philosophy or management style that emphasizes community and police partners to work together to reduce crime, fear of crime, and other problems in the community
- The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property
- to intimidate or coerce a government, or citizens... done in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Vocab: SARA model
Scanning, analysis, response, and assessment
: Refers to identifying recurring problems and prioritizing them to select one problem to address.
- Analysis: Examines the identified problem's causes, scope, and effects; includes
- determining how often the problem occurs and how long it has been
- occurring, as well as conditions that appear to create the problem
Acting to alleviate the problem, that is, selecting the alternative solution or solutions.
: Refers to evaluating how effective the intervention was; was the problem solved?
Vocab: Drug Courts
a form of restorative justice
- drug-addicted persons may be sent to Drug Court in lieu of traditional justice system case processing. Drug Courts
- keep individuals in treatment long enough for it to work, while
- supervising them closely.
- they are provided with intensive treatment and other services and are required to get and stay clean and sober
- held accountable by the Drug Court judge for meeting their obligations to the court, society, themselves and their families;
- regularly and randomly tested for drug use;
- required to appear in court frequently so that the judge may review their progress; and rewarded for doing well or sanctioned when they do not live up to their obligations.
- Antisocial Personality Disorder.
- Individuals with this disorder have little regard for the feeling and welfare of others. They do not consider other people's wishes, welfare or rights. They can be manipulative and may lie to gain personal pleasure or profit.
- There are ten general symptoms:
- not learning from experience
- no sense of responsibility
- inability to form meaningful relationships
- inability to control impulses
- lack of moral sense
- chronically antisocial behavior
- no change in behavior after punishment
- emotional immaturity
- lack of guilt
Vocab: the GRIP Program (Gang Resistance Is Paramount)
The Gang Resistance Is Paramount (GRIP) program seeks to prevent youths from joining gangs through education
Vocab: The GREAT program (Gang Resistance Education And Training)
The Gang Resistance Education And Training (GREAT) program - is aimed at stopping gang membership
Vocab: Domestic Terrorism
- The unlawful use or threatened use, or force or violence -
- against person or property -
- by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States without foreign Direction -
- To Coerce a government or civilian population in furtherance of political or social objectives
Example: Oklahoma City Bombing
Vocab: International Terrorism
The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, or citizens... done in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Is Foreign based or directed by countries or groups outside the United States.
The act can be committed on Foreign soil or in the United States But is directed at the united states
Example Bombing of an American Embassy in another country