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An umbrella term describing music from the 1980's with a wide variety of stylistic approaches and a decidedly DIY independent attitude
A law passed by congress in 1992, which among other things, allowed consumers to make personal copies of copyrighted material.
Audio home Recording Act
Often called "break dancing", is a style of street dance that originated as a part of hip hop culture among african american and latino youths in New York City during the early 1970's
a club located at 315 Bowery in New York’s Lower East Side that was the focal point of the city’s punk scene.
a digital storage media introduced in 1982 by Sony and Philips
informal neighborhood groups formed as a means of providing identity and support for their members.
a synthesizer that digitally records (samples) sounds that can be played back and
manipulated from a MIDI instrument.
a musical development evident in both the punk and alternative music scenes that actively challenged the separation of contemporary society into listeners and trained music specialists.
dance oriented pop that incorporates synthesizers, drum machines and lush orchestrations that emerged in the late 1970s.
digital rights management, the term for any one of several technologies designed to limit the number of digital copies can be made of a file.
an electronic instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums or other percussion instruments.
a technique of mixing interesting sections of different songs together first used by Jamaican DJs
an umbrella term describing a 1990s music style that combined a hardcore punk musical esthetic, poetic and self-indulgent lyrics, and a go-for-it live performance attitude.
a musical genre that developed from mixing funk and R & B rhythms and the amplification and electronic effects of rock music, complex time signatures derived from non-Western music and extended, typically instrumental, compositions with a jazz approach to lengthy group improvisations.
a rap style emerging in the 1990s characterized by lyrics using first person accounting of gang related themes that include violence, rage and sexual degradation.
a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged in the late 1980s from the Pacific Northwest, combining heavy metal and post-punk elements; primarily responsible for bringing alternative rock into the mainstream.
a subgenre of punk rock that originated in the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s, serving as a transition between punk and the more intense form of heavy metal known as thrash metal.
a collection of urban art forms emerging in the South Bronx during the late 1970s, including lifestyle, fashions, fast-talking comedy, break dancing, graffiti art, poetry, double-Dutch jump-roping, and music
a 1980s punk style that incorporated non-traditional sounds from synthesizers, avant-garde electronics and mechanical sources to infuse the sounds and ethos of modern industrial life.
the record label founded in 1961 by Charles Blackwell that initially became known for its reggae releases.
moving the lips to synchronize with a prerecorded song, giving the impression that the song is being performed live.
international music festival organized in 1985 to raise funds for Ethiopian refugees.
the indigenous folk music of Jamaica.
an acronym for musical instrument digital interface, a digital transfer protocol introduced in 1983.
Music Television, a TV network introduced in 1981 with programming that focuses on
a second wave of punk that incorporated pop oriented sensibilities.
the first generation of rap music, which usually had themes of fun and partying.
Old School Rap
record label created by Philadelphia-based songwriting duo Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff that introduced the Sound of Philadelphia (TSOP)
Philadelphia International Records
Parent’s Music Resource Center, a watchdog group organized in 1985 to “educate and inform parents of this alarming new trend . . . towards lyrics that are sexually explicit.”
a violent, body-contact style of dancing associated with punk music.
a religious movement whose followers believe they will be repatriated to their African homeland and escape Babylon (a metaphor for their oppressors in the New World).
the Jamaican music that evolved from the combination of indigenous folk, American
R & B and traditional Afro-Caribbean music.
the intertwined patterns played by the bass and drums in reggae.
a Jamaican music that is slower and more relaxed than ska and is the immediate
predecessor to reggae.
a 1977 American film that showcased aspects of the music, the dancing, and the subculture surrounding the disco era: symphony-orchestrated melodies, haute-couture styles of clothing, pre-AIDS sexual promiscuity, and graceful choreography
Saturday night fever
a technique used to transform a turntable into a musical instrument, quickly pushing and pulling records on the turntable, resulting in a variety of effects: loops, musical bursts, and backward playback.
a Jamaican musical style that combines characteristics of mento and American rhythm and blues, and is based on the use of an accented subdivision after each beat.
a technique for playing the electric bass guitar first conceived by Larry
spontaneous commentary to music by Jamaican DJs that creatively involved rhyming, interesting verbal sounds, the use of different dialects and nonsense syllables.
an effect pedal used most often on the guitar that allows the sound of an instrument to be shaped by the performer’s mouth and vocal cavity, resulting in what sounds like a talking instrument.
- Important elements: Rhythmic Groove between bass and drums
- Typical instrumentation: bass, drums, guitar, electric key board, horns
- simple two and four bar repeating phases
- the rawest form of black pop
- smooth vocals
- medium tempo
- slow romantic ballads
- predecessor to disco
- center of development: Philadelphia
- great commercial appeal
- Pop oriented dance music
- important characteristic: the relentless pounding emphasis on every beat.
- produced using synthesizers and drum machines
- Predominant use of percussion instruments
- influences from jamaican folk, american R&B, and caribbean music
- Instruments: bass, drums, and guitar
- lyrics refer to social injustices and racism
- raw and angry
- a do-it -yourself attitude
- rebellion against society
- simple reflective
- louder than mainstream rock
- Attitude was anger, frustration, and violence
- Post punk style
- slow tempo
- simple chord progressions
- star-stop dynamics
- lyrics have dark and murky themes
- Fashion: Plaid Flannel shirts, Ripped jeans, and mountain boots
- Rhyming spoken lyrics
- influenced by funk and disco
- use of pieces of existing songs that are repeated
- has a shuffle of swing beat
- heavy accent on backbeat
- Gang related themes
- hard hitting, angry vocal delivery
- Gun, siren, and other urban effects used.
Fusion/ Jazz Rock
- Extensive use of electric instruments
- Range from simple melodies to complex compositions
- Brought rhythmic complexities to rock
- Incorporated melodic blues lines to rock
- Instramentation: saxophone, trumpet, and trombone
compare and contrast the following styles of black pop 1970's
- 1. Reggae
- was influenced by american R&B
- 1st Jamaican style was called ska and was replaced with rock steady, and eventually developed into reggae
- Bob Marley and the wailers "get up stand up"- built of groove, laid by bass and drums, remains steady throughout with emphasis on upbeats, lyrics of the song are about political freedom.
- 2. disco
- it's about dancing not listening- focus was on the song not the artist.
- developed because the gay community couldn't listen to live music- no bands would play in gay clubs.
- KC and the sunshine band "thats the way i like it"
- BeeGees "stayin alive"- white disco
- Village people "YMCA"- about meeting gay people at the YMCA
- film Saturday Night Fever put disco on the radar
- rock community disliked disco-believed it was to promiscuous- there were racial misunderstandings.
- 3. funk
- Sly and the family stone "Thank You (Falettime be Mice Elf Agin)"- was one of the few racially and sexually integrated groups of the era- it was dance oriented and optimistic lyrics often touched on race.
- Ohio Players "funky worm"
- Kool and the gang "Ladies Night"
- tower of power- white, latino, and black musicians- hard driving funk grooves
- george clinton- elaborate stage performances
- James brown "public enemy #1"- about going against drug use.
- Motown artists jumped on board with funk: stevie wonder, temptation, Diana Ross.
Compare the punk and new wave movements of the 1970's
How were both musical styles received by the recording industry?
Who are the important musicians and bands associated with both music genres?
How do the musical styles and images for both differ?
- - the recording industry thought that punk was too dangerous
- - the sex pistles signed with EMI and released "anarchy in the UK", shortly after they appeared on TV behaving outlandishly and using foul language. EMI dropped them and paid off their advance, buying out of their contract.
- -A&M then picked up the band, then quickly changed their minds, paying the sex pistles another advance.
- - the sex pistles got paid a 3rd advance and released their album "never mind the bollocks, here's the sex pistles," which contained the controversial single "God save the queen"
- -It reached #1 in the UK
- the romones
- -Released many short upbeat songs and were very popular live
- -their albums didn't sell well.
- New wave
- -the recording industry was looking for the "next big album" and shunning punk artist, bands that were hipper with a more intelligent, witty edge became what they were looking for. this style was called new wave.
- - in 1978 blondie signed with Chryslis records as a new wave band
- -They had several #1 hits
- Elvis Costello
- - had a different perspective and intelligent way of commenting on society
- - adopted the "buddy Holly" style
- - the car "my best friends girl"
this genre of music a nod to the roots of rock, in a witty and sometime sarcastic way. It's better by audiences, given radio play and make the record companies money, where punk was too dangerous and the records did not sell.
Discuss the development of MTV into a full-fledged network in the 1980's.
How did musicians such as Michael Jackson, Madonna, and Prince use videos to tie visual imagery and personae into their music?
What were the some of the general criticisms of MTV in regard to music and imagery.
- -MTV allowed new ways of projecting their music and images that went with it.
- -Jacksons videos showcased his enormous dancing skills, which made his videos a cut above the rest.
- -Modanna used videos to bring up important social issues. she cast herself as a sex object in order to call it into question.
- - Prince developed his image as a sexually charged and somewhat androgynous figure.
- MTV tended to privilege the visual aspects of artists one the musical ones.
Trace the development of rap in relation to hip-hop culture from the 1970s to a mainstream musical style of the 1980s.
a. What are the important musical elements and performance techniques associated with rap music, and what individuals contributed to these developments?
b. How did rap music break into the mainstream?