Arch 270 Week 13

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jaz584
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251011
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Arch 270 Week 13
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2013-12-05 14:34:49
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Arch 270 Week 13
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Arch 270 Week 13
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  1. Cultural Innovation of Modern Humans
    • 1)blades rather than flakes
    • 2) broader subsistence base
    • 3) increased use of non lithic material
    • 4)increase in non utilitarian items
    • 5) larger more sedentary settlements
    • 6) long distance trade
    • 7) elaborate burials
    • 8) first undisputed works of art
  2. Blades vs Flakes
    • -blades at least twice as long as wide
    • -up to 5x more useable edge from same amount of stone than regular flakes
    • -occur regularly after 50KYA
  3. Aurignacian Industry
    • -34-27KYA
    • -long blade tools
    • -burins
    • -scrapers
  4. Gravettian
    • -27-21KYA
    • -smaller blades
    • -denticulate knives
  5. Solutrean Industry
    • -21-16KYA
    • -symmetrical leaf shaped projectile point
  6. Magdalenian Industry
    • -16-11KYA
    • -microblades for composite tools
    • -bone and antler tools
  7. Broader Subsistence Base
    • -fish, birds, small mammals 
    • -plant foods
  8. Dolni Vestonice
    • -Czech Republic
    • -net impressions in baked clay flood
    • -possible small animal hunting
    • -preserved plant remains
    • -complex of three sites, habitation, graves and stone workshop
    • -earliest fired clay figurines and kiln
  9. Mal'ta
    • -Siberia, Russia
    • -hunting of migratory game
    • -hunting animals for fur
  10. Increased use of Non lithic Material
    • -bone, ivory, antler and wood
    • -needles, awls, harpoons, shaft straighteners, fish hooks, spear heads etc etc
  11. Long Distance Trade
    • -raw materials found as far as 500km from source 
    • -intricate trade routes with extensive social connections
  12. Altamira
    • -Spain
    • -17-14KYA 
    • -cave paintings
    • -initially thought to be a hoax
  13. Abri Blanchard
    • -France
    • -engraved antler plaque that may represent lunar phases
    • -32KYA
  14. Madeleine
    • -France
    • -mammoth engraved into mammoth ivory
  15. Venus Figurines
    • -30-10KYA
    • -clay or carved stone
    • -faceless
    • -exaggerated sexual features
    • -mother goddess? fertility symbol? self portrait?
  16. Hohle Fels Cave
    • -Germany
    • -35KYA (oldest by 5KY)
    • -mammoth ivory
    • -prehistoric pinup because sexual features are so exaggerated
  17. Sunda
    • -Islands (Java, Sumatra, Bali and Borneo) joined into one peninsula
    • -120-20KYA
  18. Sahul
    -combined landmass of Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania
  19. Wallace Trench
    • -deep oceanic rift separating Sahul from Sunda
    • -prevented natural migration of plants and animals
    • -marks boundary between Asian and Australian fauna
  20. Peopling of Australia
    • -Australia separated from Asia 70MYA
    • -peopled 60-40KYA
    • -likely involved island hopping 
    • -distances of 70km between islands
  21. Lake Mungo
    • -Australia 
    • -gracile cranium
    • -skulls dating from 40-60KYA and some from 25KYA
    • -possibly suggests multiple migrations
  22. Bobongara
    • -New Guinea(was part of Sahul)
    • -40KYA
    • -groundstone waisted axes
  23. Malakunanja
    • -northern Australia
    • -1000+ artifacts dating to 61KYA
  24. Wisconsin
    • -last glacial period in North America
    • -maximum 25-14KYA
    • -2 major ice sheets, Laurentide (eastern) and Cordilleran(west)
    • -ice free corridor through alberta(likely continuously passable)
  25. Beringia
    • -unglaciated land mass stretching from siberia to alaska
    • -80-14KYA
    • -treeless landscape with abundant and diverse fauna
  26. Tundra vs Mammoth steppe
    • -tundra: shallow permafrost, cold, waterlogged acidic soil, low nutrient vegetation discouraging grazing, slow nutrient turnover
    • -mammoth steppe: deeper permafrost, warmer, well drained fertile soil, deep rooted vegetation, high efficient nutrient turnover
  27. Beringian Migration Routes
    • 1) ice free corridor- likely partially obstructed after 35KYA, may not have been habitable at all
    • 2) coastal route-required ice free refugia and sophisticated technology(watercraft, weaponry) this theory is difficult to support archeologically
  28. Clovis Hypothesis
    • -rapid expansion of specialized (clovis tip) hunters who moved south from Beringia following glacial retreat after 14KYA
    • -peopling of the new world was an EVENT
    • -earliest sites in american southwest date to 11-11.5KYA
  29. Clovis Culture
    • -type site of Clovis, New Mexico
    • -specialized big game hunting with fluted points hafted onto shafts
    • -Clovis points appear first in Southwest USA but are found across NA (except Beringia)
  30. Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
    • -Clovis hunters followed the megafauna south
    • -caused extinction of 75% of large mammals
  31. Pre-Clovis Hypothesis
    • -expansion during the wisconsin glacial period of foraging peoples who spread throughout the new world
    • -peopling of the New world was a PROCESS 
    • -sites range from 50KYA(debatable) to 14KYA
  32. Meadowcroft
    • -PA
    • -19-14KYA
    • -obvious pre clovis
  33. Cactus Hill
    • -VA
    • -22-18KYA
    • -similar to meadowcroft
  34. Paisley Caves
    • -Oregon
    • -human coprolite(feces) dating to 14.3 MYA
  35. Monte Verde
    • -Chile
    • -15-12.5KYA
    • -amazing preservation from peat bog
  36. 3 Language Migrations
    • -Aleut-Eskimo 4-6KYA
    • -Na-Dene 9-14KYA
    • -Amerind 14-25KYA
  37. Typological Model
    • -divided everyone into groups based on geography of traits in their region
    • -based on pure races
  38. Population Model
    • -grouped people based on whose ancestors mated with each other over time
    • -distinct breeding populations
    • -undermined because people do not maintain breeding patterns for long periods of time
    • -technology has further increased "cross breeding"
  39. Clinal Model
    • -traits change gradually in frequency from one geographic area to next
    • -does not result in classifications of race
  40. Cultural Adaptation
    • -buffers us against many environmental stessors and inhibits the effects of natural selection
    • -things we make to make surviving easier, houses, clothing etc
  41. Physiological Adaptation
    • -acclimation-short term responses to stress (shivering, sweating etc)
    • -acclimatization-long term response to stress (changing body chemistry)
    • -developmental acclimatization- changes in organ or body structure as a response to stress during growth and development
  42. Genetic Adaptation
    • -inherited traits that allow adaptations to particular environments
    • -heat/cold stress, bodies change to radiate/conserve heat
  43. Bergmann's Rule
    • -among mammals of similar shape, smaller will lose heat more rapidly
    • -among those of similar size, more linear will lose heat more rapidly
  44. Allen's Rule
    -mammals living in colder climates will tend to have shorter limbs than those in hot climates
  45. Cline
    -gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next
  46. Menarche
    -onset of menstruation in adolescent women
  47. Melanocytes
    -melanin producing cells located in the skin's epidermis
  48. Folsom
    -native american culture immediately following Clovis culture

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