Chem Final Review Chapter 2

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  1. Atomic orbitals can be combined and overlapped to give more complex __. We can add and subtract their functions to give the wave functions of new orbals, called __.
    • standing waves
    • linear combo of atomic orbitals
  2. When orbitals on different atoms interact, they produce __ tha tlead to __ interactions.

    When orbitals on the same aton interact, they give __ that define the geometry of the bonds.
    • molecular orbitals
    • bonding (or antib) interactions

    hybrid atomic orbitals
  3. A pi bond is results from overlap between two p orbitals oriented __ on the line connecting th enuclei. These __ orbitals overlap __, with mose of the electron density __ and __ the line connecting the nuclei.
    • perpendicular
    • parallel
    • sideways
    • above and below
  4. An angle of __ is the largest possible separation for four pairs of electirons; __ for three and __ for two.
    • 109.5 (tetrahedron)
    • 120 (planar)
    • 180 (linear)
  5. sp hybridization results in __
    sp2 results in __
    sp3 results in __
    • linear bonding arrangement
    • trigonal geometry
    • tetrahedral arrangement
  6. General rules for determining hybridization of orbitals and bond angles of atoms in organic molecules
    1: both sigma bonding e and lone pairs can occupy hybrid orbiatals. The number of hybrid orbitals is computed by adding the number of sigma bonds and the number of lone pairs of electrons on that atom
  7. General rules for determining hybridization of orbitals and bond angles of atoms in organic molecules
    use the hybridization and the geometry that give the widest possible separation of the calculated number of bonds and lone pairs
  8. General rules for determining hybridization of orbitals and bond angles of atoms in organic molecules
    If two or three pairs of electrons form a multiple bond between two atoms, the first bond is a sigma bond formed by a hybrid orbital. The second bond is a pi bond, consisting of two lobes above and below the sigma bond, formed by two unhybridized p orbitals. The third bond of a triple bond is another pi bond, perpendicular to the first pi bond
  9. Strctures differing only in rotations about a single bond are called __. 

    Generalize rotation.

    rotation about single bonds is allowed, but double bonds are rigid and cannot be twisted
  10. What are isomers? What are the types
    • differnet compuounds with the same molecular formula
    • consititutional: isomers that differ in their bonding sequence
    • stereoisomers: differ only in how their atoms are oriented in space
  11. What is the largest dipole moment?
  12. Molecular dipole moment versus bond dipole moments?
    • bond: between two atoms that are bonded together
    • dipole moment of the molecule taken as a whole and can be measured directly
  13. __ contribute to dipole moments of bonds and molecules. Each __ corresponds to a __, with the nucleus having a partial positive and the negative charge on the lone pair.
    • lone pair x2
    • charge separation
  14. When two molecules approach, they __ or __ each other. In general, the forces are __ until the molecules what?

    When this happens, the small attractive force quicky becomes a __ and the molecules __.
    • attract
    • repel 
    • attractive
    • come so close that they infringe on each other's van der Waals radius
    • attractive force
    • bounce off each other
  15. Three major kinds of attractive forces cause molecules to associate into solids and lipids:
    • 1) dipole dipole forces of polar bonds
    • 2) London dispersion of all
    • 3) hydrogen bonds
  16. The most stable arrangement pertaining to a dipole moment has what?
    Polar molecules are mostly oriented in the __ and the net force is __. This must be overcome when the liquid vaporizes, resulting in larger__ and higher __ for strongle polar compounds
    the positive end of one dipole close to the negative end of another

    • most stable positive to negative arrangement
    • attractive
    • heats of vaporization
    • BP
  17. Isomers with larger surface areas and greater potential for London force attraction have (higher/lower) BPs.
  18. What is the relation between branching and BP?
    as the amount of branching increases, the molecule becomes more spherical and its surface area decreases, leading to a lower BP
  19. What do hydrogen bonds do to the BP?

    __ form stronger hydrogen bonds than __, probably because oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen.
    • raise it
    • alcohols
    • amines
  20. General rule for dissolving things.
    • like dissolves like
    • polar with polar 
    • nonpolar with nonpolar
  21. Polar Solute in a Polar Solvent (Does dissolve)
    Polar solvents __ the solute. If the solvent is water, it is called __. A large amount of energy is released when this happens.
    • solvate
    • hydration
  22. Polar Solute in a NonPolar Solvent (Does not dissolve)
    - __ cannot be overcome. The attractions of the __ are much greater than the attractions for the __.
    • lattice energy
    • ions in the solid for each other
    • solvent
  23. Nonpolar Solute in a Nonpolar Solvent
    The molecules of a nonpolar substance are __ attracted to each oter and these __ are easily overcome by __ with the solvent. Although there is little change in __ when dissolving, there is a large increase in __.
    • weakly
    • van der waals attractions x2
    • energy
    • entropy
  24. Non- Polar Solute in a nPolar Solvent (Does not dissolve)

    Because of the strong attraction of the hydrogen bonds in water, what does it cause a nonpolar solute to do?
    a cavity would form around them and a tighter, more rigid ice-like structure around the cavity forms
  25. Alkanes undergo few reactions because thy have no __, which ar distinct chemical units, like double bonds, etc.
    functional groups
  26. What are ethers?
    • composed of two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen
    • R-O-R'
  27. Carbonyl groups?
    • C=O
    • ketones: within the ring; has two alkyl groups attached
    • aldehyde: has a hydrogen bonded attached
  28. The __ is strongly polar and can form hydrogen bonds with hydrogen-bond donors such as water, amines, and alcohols. Aldehydes and ketones containing up to __ are miscible with water. Both __ and __ are miscible with water.
    • carbonyl group
    • 4 carbon atoms
    • acetone 
    • acetaldehyde
  29. Carboxylic acids owe their acidity to the __. The are __.
    resonance stabilized carboxylate anions formed from deprotonation

    strongly polar
  30. Carboxylic acid derivatives:
    • esters
    • amides
    • acid chlorides
  31. Amines are what
  32. Amides are what?
    acid darivatives formed from a cobo of an acid with ammonia or an amine
  33. Amides form particularly strong hydrogen bonds, giving them __ and __
    high MP and high BP
  34. Nitriles are what?
    C triple bonded to N
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Chem Final Review Chapter 2
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