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What is the peritoneum?
A thin, transparent memberane that consists of two layers. (parietal and visceral)
What lines the abdominal wall?
what lines the visceral organs?
What is in the space b/w the visceral and parietal peritoneum?
serous fluid; to reduce friction
Are all organs covered by peritoneum?
List 2 specialized parts of the peritonuem
Mesentary and omentum
What is Mesentary? What does it provide a means for? List an Example of mesentery. What is contained within the fibrous tissue of the mesentary?
A double layer of peritoneum that encloses the abdominal organs; provides a means for nuermusclar communication and organ attachment to posterior abdominal wall; small intestine; blood and lymph vessels, nerves, lymph nodes and adipose tissue.
what is the ommentum? What does it consist of?
A double layer of peritoneum that attaches the stomach to the body wall or other abdominal organs; A greater omentum and lesser ommentum.
A fat laden fold of peritoneum that connects the stomach with the transverse colon is?
the greater omentum
What connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum to the liver?
the lesser omentum
Where is the abdominal cavity located?
What does it contain?
- Superior to the pevlic intlet and limited superiorly by the thoracic diaphragm.
- It contains the peritoneum and viscera.
What is the esophagus? function? How does it enter the abdominal cavity? what type of action creates rapid food movement from the oral cavity to the stomach?
- Muscular tube that extend from the pharyx to the stomach (25cm);
- transfers food from oral cavity to the stomach;
- through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm;
- peristaltic action
What is the expandable part of the digestive tract that lies b/w the esophagus and the small intesine?
How much can it hold?
- enzymagtic digestion of food for conversion to chyme;
- 2-3 liters.
Name the 4 parts of the stomach
what part of the stomach connects it to the esophagus?
what controls the discharge of the stomach contents into the duodenum?
What is the function of the small intestine? List the 3 parts
- to continue with food digestion;
What is the first and shortest part of small intestine? What shape is it? Name the 4 parts;What ducts enter it?
- C- Shaped
- Superior, Descending, Horizontal and Ascending
- Bile and pancreatic ducts
How is the jejunum different from the ileum?
The jejunum is redder, thicker and has greater vascularity than the ileum.
What is the largest lymphatic organ? What quadrant is it located in? Function? Does removal impair immune response?
- Sleen; Left upper abdominal quadrant;
- function is to eliminate damaged cells from circulation, filter antigens and contribute the immune response.
What organ lies postior to the stomach? List 2 functions; what are the four parts of this organ?
- Secreate gastric juices into the duodenum via the pancreat ducts. Also acts as an endocrine gland to supply body with insulin and glucagon from the islet of langerhans.
- Head, neck, body and tail
What is the largest gland in the body? Where is it located? What is the function?
- The liver; right upper quadrant;
- involved in metabolic activites, secretion of bile and storage of glycogen. Also processes the products of digestion.
list the 3 parts of the portal triad and explain each part
- bile duct-formed by the common hepatic duct and cystic duct
- Hepatic artery- arises from the aorta and delivers oxygenated blood to the liver
- Portal vei-arises from the mesentaric and splenic veins and empties into the liver. Carries nutrient rich blood.
What purpose does the gall bladder serve? When does it realease its contents?
- bile storage and concentration of bile;
- when fat enters the duodenum. It goes from the cystic duct to the bile duct
what is the first part of the large intestine? what does it look like?
the cecum; it looks like a blind intestinal pouch
what connects the ilium with the cecum?
the ileocecal valve
what is connected to the cecum? Desribe it?
a verimform appendix; it is a blind diverticulum. The funtion is not well understood.
List four parts of the colon? what is the funtion of the colon?
- Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon;
- The function of the colon is to remove fluid from the fecal matter.
what is a continuation of the colon? How does it control defecation?
The rectum and anal canal. It has sphincters.
What lies on the posterior abdominal wall?
- removes excess water, wastes and salts of protein metabolism from the blood. Returns nutrients and chemicals back to the blood.
What conveys waste products from the kidneys to the bladder? How do they run?
- They run inferior to the kidneys over the common illiac arteries to the bladder.
What is located on the superior aspect of the kidneys? Function?
- adrenal glands.
- produces hormones and steroid production for the body
Name 3 things that the pelvic cavity contains.
Bladder, female and male reproductive organs
What is the name of the muscular tube that conveys urine from the bladder?
What do ovaries produce?
oocytes or ova and estrogen
what conveys the ovum from the ovary to the uterus?
uterine or fallopian tubes
Name a thick walled, pair shaped, and muscular organ.
what is the cervix?
Neck region of the uterus
Name the musculomembranous tube that extends from the cervix.
What do testis produce? Where are they found?
spermatozoa and testostorone.
what lies between the bladder and rectum? function?
seminal vessicle. Secrete akaline fluid that mixes with sperm.
What is the ejaculatory duct?
tube that arises form the union of the seminal vessical and ductus deferens to connect to the urethra.
What is a prostate gland?
an accessory gland that secretes to form part of the seminal fluid.