MIS Final

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  1. MIS Infrastructure
    Includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and improve productivity, optimize business operations, generate growth, and increase profitability.
  2. Client
    A computer designed to request information from a server.
  3. Server
    A computer dedicated to providing info in response to requests.
  4. Enterprise architect
    A person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business.

    Firms employ them to help manage change and dynamically update MIS infrastructure.
  5. 3 primary areas where enterprise architects focus when maintaining a firm's MIS infrastructure:
    Supporting operations: Information MIS infrastructure

    Supporting change: Agile MIS infrastructure

    Supporting the environment: Sustainable MIS infrastructure
  6. Supporting operations: Information MIS infrastructure
    Identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured.
  7. Supporting change: Agile MIS infrastructure
    Includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization's goals.
  8. Supporting the environment: Sustainable MIS infrastructure
    Identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption.
  9. To support continuous business operations, an information infrastructure provides three primary elements:
    Back up and recovery plan

    Disaster recovery plan

    Business continuity plan
  10. Fault tolerance
    The ability for a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service.
  11. Failover
    A specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to the secondary server.
  12. Failback
    Occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server.
  13. Hot site
    A separate and fully equipped facility where employees can move after a disaster.
  14. Warm site
    A separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration.
  15. Cold Site
    A separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster.
  16. Disaster recovery cost curve
    Charts 1) the cost to the company of the unavailability of information and technology and 2) the cost to the company of recovering from a disaster over time.
  17. Technology failure
    Occurs when the ability of a company to operate is impaired because of a hardware, software, or data outage.
  18. Agile MIS infrastructure characteristics:
    • Accessibility
    • Availability
    • Maintainability
    • Portability
    • Reliability
    • Scalability
    • Usability
  19. Accessibility
    Refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system.
  20. Web accessibility
    Means that people with disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities, can use the web.
  21. Web accessibility initiative (WAI)
    Brings together people from industry, disability organization, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the web accessible to people with disabilities.
  22. Availability
    Refers to the time frames when the system is operational.
  23. High availability
    Occurs when a system is continuously operating at all times.
  24. Maintainability
    Or flexibility - refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes.

    Helps to measure how quickly and effectively a system can be changed or repaired after a failure.
  25. Portability
    Refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems.
  26. Reliability
    Or accuracy - ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information during transmissions.
  27. Vulnerability
    A system weakness, such as a password that is never changed or a system left on while an employee goes to lunch, that can be exploited by a threat.
  28. Scalability
    Describes how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demands of growth.
  29. Performance
    Measure how quickly a system performs a process or transaction.
  30. Capacity
    Represents the maximum throughput a system can deliver
  31. Capacity planning
    Determines future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance.
  32. Usability
    The degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use.
  33. Serviceability
    How quickly a third party can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability.
  34. Moore's Law
    Refers to the computer chip performance per dollar double every 18 months.
  35. Sustainable, or green, MIS
    Describes the production, management, use, and disposal of technology in a way that minimizes damage to the environment.
  36. Ewaste
    Refers to discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices.
  37. Sustainable MIS disposal
    Refers to the safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle. It ensures ewaste does not end up in landfills causing environmental issues.
  38. Grid computing
    A collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem. (Like torrent)
  39. Smart grid
    Delivers electricity using two-way digital technology. It is meant to solve the problem of the world's outdated electrical grid, making it more efficient and reliable by adding the ability to remotely monitor, analyze, and control the transmission of power.
  40. Virtualization
    Creates multiple "virtual" machines on a single computing device.
  41. Data center
    A facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.
  42. Multi-tenancy
    In the cloud means that a single instance of a system serves multiple customers. In the cloud, each customer is called a tenant and multiple tenants can access the same system.
  43. Single-tenancy
    In which each customer or tenant must purchase and maintain an individual system.
  44. Cloud fabric
    The software that makes possible the benefits of cloud computing.
  45. Cloud fabric controller
    An individual who monitors and provisions cloud resources, similar to server administrator at an individual company. 

    They provision resources, balance loads, manage servers, update systems, and ensure all environments are available and operating correctly.
  46. Benefits of cloud computing:
    • On-demand self-service
    • Broad network access
    • Multi-tenancy
    • Rapid elasticity
    • Measured service
  47. Utility computing
    Offers a pay-per-use revenue model similar to a metered service such as gas or electricity.
  48. Cloud service delivery models:
    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

    Software as a Service (SaaS)

    Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  49. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
    Delivers hardware networking capabilities, including the use of servers, networking, and storage, over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model.
  50. Dynamic scaling
    Which means the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on needed requirements.
  51. Software as a Service (SaaS)
    Delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model.
  52. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
    Supports the deployment of entire systems including hardware, networking, and applications using a pay-per-use revenue model.
  53. Public cloud
    Promotes massive, global, and industrywide applications offered to the general public. 

    Pricing is utility-style and customers pay only for the resources they use.

    Ex. Amazon Web Services (AWS), Windows Azure, and Google Cloud Connect.
  54. Private cloud
    Serves only one customer or org. and can be located on the customer's premises or off the customer's premises.
  55. Community cloud
    Serves a specific community with common business models, security requirements, and compliance considerations.
  56. Hybrid cloud
    Includes 2 or more private, public, or community clouds, but each cloud remains separate and is only linked by technology that enable data and application portability.
  57. Cloud bursting
    When a company uses its own computing infrastructure for normal usage and accesses the cloud when it needs to scale for peak load requirements, ensuring a sudden spike in usage does not result in poor performance or system crashes.
  58. Information granularity
    Refers to the extent of detail within information (fine and detailed, or coarse and abstract).
  59. 4 primary traits of the value of information:
    • Info type
    • Info timeliness
    • Info quality
    • Info governance
  60. Real-time information
    Means immediate, up-to-date info.
  61. Real-time systems
    Provide real-time info in response to requests.
  62. Information inconsistency
    Occurs when the same data element has different values. For example a last name change - if not done in all systems, there will be info inconsistency.
  63. Information integrity issues
    Occur when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data.
  64. 5 Common characteristics of high-quality information
    • Accurate
    • Complete
    • Consistent
    • Timely
    • Unique
  65. Data governance
    Refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data.
  66. Database
    Maintains info about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses).
  67. Database management system (DBMS)
    Creates, reads, updates, and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security.
  68. Query-by-example tool (QBE)
    Helps users graphically design the answer to a question against a database.
  69. Structured query language (SQL)
    Asks users to write lines of code to answer questions against a database.
  70. Data element (or data field)
    The smallest or basic unit of information.
  71. Data models
    Logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures.
  72. Metadata
    Provides details about data. Ex. metadata for an image could include its size, resolution and date created. For a text could contain document length, data created, author's name, and summary.
  73. Data dictionary
    Compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model.
  74. Relational database model
    Stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
  75. Relational database management system
    Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database.
  76. Entity
    Aka a table, stores info about a person, place, thing, transaction, or event.
  77. Attributes
    Aka columns or fields, are the data elements associated with an entity.
  78. Primary key
    A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given record in a table.
  79. Foreign key
    A primary key on one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between two tables.
  80. Physical view of information
    Deals with the physical storage or info on a storage device.
  81. Logical view of info
    Focuses on how individual users logically access info to meet their own business needs.
  82. Business advantages of a relational database:
    • Increased flexibility
    • Increased scalability and performance
    • Reduced information redundance
    • Increased information integrity
    • Increased information security
  83. Information redundancy
    The duplication of data, or the storage of the same data in multiple places.
  84. Information integrity
    A measure of the quality of information.
  85. Integrity constraints
    Rules that help ensure the quality of information.
  86. Relational integrity constraints
    Rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.
  87. Business rule
    Defines how a company performs certain aspects of its business and typically results in either a yes/no or true/false answer.
  88. Business-critical integrity constraints
    Enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
  89. Content creator
    The person responsible for creating the original website content.
  90. Content editor
    The person responsible for updating and maintaining website content.
  91. Static information
    Includes fixed data incapable of change in the event of a user action.
  92. Dynamic information
    Includes data that change based on user actions.
  93. Dynamic catalog
    Dynamic website information is stored in a dynamic catalog, or an area of a website that stores information about products in a database.
  94. Data-driven website
    An interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database.
  95. Advantages of data-driven websites:
    • Easy to manage content
    • Easy to store large amounts of data
    • Easy to eliminate human errors
  96. Data warehouse
    A logical collection of information, gathered from many different operational databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.
  97. Data warehouses help business users to be more effective in the following ways:
    • Developing customer profiles
    • Identifying new-product opportunities
    • Improving business operations
    • Identifying financial issues
    • Analyzing trends
    • Understanding competitors
    • Understanding product performance
  98. Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
    A process that extracts info from internal and external databases, transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads it into a data warehouse.
  99. Information cube
    Common term for the representation of multidimensional information.
  100. Information cleansing or scrubbing
    A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
  101. Data quality audits
    Done to determine the accuracy and completeness of a firms data.
  102. Data mining
    The process of analyzing data to extract information level (coarse granularity) and progress through increasing levels of detail (drilling down), or the reverse (drilling up).
  103. Data-mining tools
    Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information that predict future behavior and guide decision making.
  104. Structured data
    Data mining occurs on structured data that are already in a database or a spreadsheet.
  105. Unstructured data
    Does not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails ect.
  106. Text mining
    Analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences.
  107. Web mining
    Analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation.
  108. Cluster analysis
    A technique used to divide information sets into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible.
  109. Association detection
    Reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships.
  110. Market basket analysis
    Analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services.
  111. Time-series information
    Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency.
  112. Forecasts
    Are predictions based on time-series info.
  113. Informing
    Accessing large amounts of data from different management info systems.
  114. Infographics (information graphics)
    Displays information graphically so it can be easily understood.
  115. Data visualization
    Describes technologies that allow users to "see" or visualize data to transform information into a business perspective.
  116. Data visualization tools
    Move beyond excel graphs and charts into sophisticated analysis techniques such as pie chars, controls, instruments, maps, time-series graphs, and more.
  117. Business intelligence dashboards
    Track corporate metrics such as critical success factors and key performance indicators and include advanced capabilities such as interactive controls allowing users to manipulate data for analysis.
  118. Local area network (LAN)
    Connects a group of computers in close proximity, such as in an office building, school, or home. 
  119. Wide area network (WAN)
    Spans a large geographic area such as a state, province, or county. Ex. the internet. Essential for carrying out the day-to-day activities of many companies allowing them to transmit and receive info among their employees, customers, suppliers ect. 
  120. Attenuation
    In networking it represent the loss of a network signal strength measured in decibels (dB) and occurs because the transmissions gradually dissipate in strength over longer distances or because of radio interference or physical obstructions such as walls.
  121. Repeater
    Receives and repeats a signal to extend its attenuation or range.
  122. Metropolitan area network (MAN)
    A large computer network usually spanning a city. Most colleges and large companies use this.
  123. National service providers (NSPs)
    Private companies that own and maintain the worldwide backbone that support the internet. Ex. Sprint, Verizon. (Top of hierarchy for network service providers)
  124. Regional service providers (RSPs)
    Offer internet service by connecting to NSPs, but they also can connect directly to each other. (2nd level in the hierarchy of network providers)
  125. Internet service provider (ISP)
    Specializes in providing management, support, and maintenance to a network. Such as AOL, AT&T, Comcast ect.
  126. Bandwidth
    The maximum amount of data that can pass from one point to another in a unit of time.
  127. Bit
    Short for binary digit. The smallest element of data and has a value of either 0 or 1. 
  128. Bit rate (or data rate)
    Bandwidth is measured in terms of this. The number of bits transferred or received per unit of time. 
  129. Modem
    A device that enables a computer to transmit and receive data.
  130. Broadband
    A high-speed internet connection that is always connected. 
  131. High-speed internet cable connections
    Provide internet access using a cable television company's infrastructure and a special cable modem.
  132. Cable modem (or broadband modem)
    A type of digital modem used with high-speed cable internet service.
  133. Broadband over power line (BPL)
    Technology makes possible high-speed internet access over ordinary residential electrical lines and offers an alternative to DSL or high-speed cable modems.
  134. Standard packet formats
    Include a packet header, packet body containing the original message, and a package footer. 
  135. Packet header
    Lists the destination containing the original message, and packet footer.
  136. Packet footer
    Represents the end of the packet or transmission end.
  137. Traceroute
    A utility application that monitors the network path of packet data sent to a remote computer.
  138. Proxy
    Software that prevents direct communication between a sending and receiving computer and is used to monitor packets for security reasons.
  139. Protocol
    A standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission.
  140. File transfer protocol (FTP)
    A simple network protocol that allows the transfer of files between two computers on the internet.
  141. Transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP)`
    Network access technologies us a standard internet protocol called TCP/IP, which provides the technical foundation for the public internet as well as for large numbers of private networks.
  142. IP address
    A unique number that identifies where computers are located on the network.
  143. Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP)
    Allows dynamic IP address allocation so users do not have to have a preconfigured IP address to use the network.
  144. Domain name system (DNS)
    Converts IP addresses into domains.
  145. Network convergence
    The efficient coexistence of telephone, video, and data communication within a single network, offering convenience and flexibility not possible with separate infrastructures.
  146. Unified communications (UC)
    The integration of communication channels into a single service.
  147. Voice over IP (VoIP)
    Uses IP technology to transmit telephone calls.
  148. Peer-to-peer (P2P)
    A computer network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than centralized server.
  149. Internet Protocol TV (IPTV)
    Distributes digital video content using IP across the internet and private IP networks.
  150. Intranet
    A restricted network that relies on Internet technologies to provide an internet-like environment within the company for info sharing, communications, collaboration, web publishing, and the support of business processes.
  151. Extranet
    An extension of an intranet that is available only to authorized outsiders, such as customers, partners, and suppliers. 
  152. Virtual private network (VPN)
    Companies can establish direct private network links among themselves or create private, secure internet access, in effect a "private tunnel" within the internet, call a VPN.
  153. Secure sockets layer (SSL)
    A standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and browser, ensuring that ll data passed between them remain private.
  154. SSL Certificate
    To create an SSL connection, a web server requires an SSL Certificate, an electronic document that confirms the identity of a website or server and verifies that a public key belongs to a trustworthy individual or company.
  155. Secure hypertext transfer protocol (SHTTP or HTTPS)
    A combination of HTTP and SSL to provide encryption and secure ID of an internet server.
  156. Digital divide
    A worldwide gap giving advantage to those with access to technology.
  157. Personal area network (PAN)
    Provides communication for devices owned by a single user that work over a short distans. Used to transfer files, including email, calendar appointments, digital photos, and music. Can provide communication between a wireless headset and a cell phone or between a computer and a wireless mouse or keyboard.
  158. Bluetooth
    A wireless PAN technology.
  159. Wireless LAN (WLAN)
    A local area network that uses radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet. 
  160. Access point (AP)
    The computer or network device that serves as an interface between devices and the network.
  161. Wireless access point (WAP)
    Enables devices to connect to a wireless network to communicate with each other.
  162. Multiple-in/multiple-out (MIMO) technology
    WAPs with MIMO have multiple transmitters and receivers, allowing them to send and receive greater amounts of data than traditional networking devices.
  163. Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)
    A means by which portable devices can connect wirelessly to a local area network, using access points that send and receive data via radio waves.
  164. Wi-Fi infrastructure
    Includes the inner workings of a wi-fi service or utility, including the signal transmitters, towers, or poles, along with additional equipment required to send out a wi-fi signal.
  165. Hotspots
    Designated locations where wi-fi access points are publicly available.
  166. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Researches and institutes electrical standards for communication and other technologies.
  167. IEEE 802.11n (or Wireless-N)
    The newest standard for wireless networking.
  168. Wireless MAN (WMAN)
    A metropolitan area network that uses radio signals to transmit and receive data.
  169. Worldwide Interoperability for Microware Access (WiMAX)
    A communications technology aimed at providing high-speed wireless data over metropolitan area networks.
  170. Wireless WAN (WWAN)
    A wide area network that uses radio signals to transmit and receive data.
  171. Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
    Uses electronic tags and labels to identify objects wirelessly over short distances.
  172. RFID tag
    An electronic identification device that is made up of a chip and antenna.
  173. RFID reader (RFID interrogator)
    A transmitter/receiver that reads the contents of RFID tags in the area.
  174. Passive RFID tags
    Do not have a power source, wheres active RFID tags have their own transmitter and a power source (typically a battery).
  175. Semi-passive RFID tags
    Use a battery to run the microchip's circuitry, but communicate by drawing power from the RFID reader. 
  176. Asset tracking
    Occurs when a company places active or semi-passive RFID tags on expensive products or assets to gather data on the items' location with little or no manual intervention. 
  177. RFID acclererometer
    A device that measure the acceleration (the rate of change of velocity) of an item and is used to track truck speeds or taxi cab speeds.
  178. Chipless RFID tags
    Use plastic or conductive polymers instead of silicon-based microchips, allowing them to be washed or exposed to water without damaging the chip.
  179. Automatic vehicle location (AVL)
    Uses GPS tracking to track vehicles. 
  180. Geocache
    A GPS technology adventure game that posts longitude (east/west) and latitude (north/south) location for an item on the internet for users to find.
  181. Geocoin
    A round coin-sized object, is uniquely numbered and hidden in geocache.
  182. Geographic information system (GIS)
    Stores, views, and analyzes geographic data creating multidimensional charts or maps. 
  183. Cartography
    The science and art of making an illustrated map or chart.
  184. Edge matching (warping, rubber sheeting)
    Occurs when paper maps are laid edge to edge and items that run across maps but do not match are reconfigured to match. 
  185. GIS map automation
    Links business assets to a centralized system where they can be tracked and monitored over time.
  186. Spatial data (geospatial data or geographic information)
    Identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth, such as natural or constructed features, oceans, and more.
  187. Geocoding
    In spatial databases is a coding process that assigns a digital map feature to an attribute that serves as a unique ID (tract number, node number) or classification (soil type, zoning category).
  188. Location-based services (LBS)
    Applications that use location information to provide a service. 
  189. Wired equivalent privacy (WEP)
    An encryption algorithm designed to protect wireless transmission data.
  190. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
    A wireless security protocol to protect Wi-Fi networks.
  191. War chalking
    The practice of tagging pavement with codes displaying where Wi-Fi access is available.
  192. Integrations
    A connection that allows seperate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems.
  193. Eintegration
    The use of the internet to provide customers with the ability to gain personalized info by querying corporate databases and their information sources.
  194. Application integration
    The integration of a company's existing management information systems.
  195. Data integration
    The integration of data from multiple sources, which provides a unified view of all data.
  196. Forward integration
    Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
  197. Backward integration
    Takes info entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
  198. Enterprise application integration (EAI)
    Connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems.
  199. Middleware
    Integrations are achieved using middleware - several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications.
  200. Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware
    Takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors.
  201. The three primary enterprise systems:
    • Supply chain management
    • Customer relationship management
    • Enterprise resource planning
  202. 5 basic supply chain activities:
    Plan-prepare to manage all resources required to meet demand

    Source-build relationships with suppliers to procure raw materials

    Make-manufacture products and create production schedules

    Deliver-plan for transportation of goods to customers

    Return-support customers and product returns
  203. Supply chain visibility
    The ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time.
  204. Supply chain planning systems
    Use advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory.
  205. Supply chain execution systems
    Ensure supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain.
  206. Electronic data interchange (EDI)
    A standard format for the electronic exchange of info between supply chain participants.
  207. Bullwhip effect
    Occurs when distorted product demand info ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain.
  208. Demand planning systems
    Generate demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhancements.
  209. Supply chain management metrics:
    • Back order
    • Inventory cycle time
    • Customer order cycle time
    • Inventory turnover
  210. Fastest-growing SCM components include:
    • Collaborative demand planning
    • Collaborative engineering
    • Selling chain management
    • Supply chain event management (SCEM)
  211. Customer relationship management (CRM)
    A means of managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability.
  212. CRM reporting technologies
    Help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
  213. CRM predicting technologies
    Help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.
  214. CRM predicting technologies
    Help organizations predict customer behavior, such as which customers are at risk of leaving.
  215. Operational CRM
    Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
  216. Analytical CRM
    Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers.
  217. The three primary operational CRM technologies a marketing dept. can implements to increase customer satisfaction are:
    • List generator
    • Campaign management
    • Cross-selling and up-selling
  218. List generators
    Compile customer info from a variety of sources and segment it for different marketing campaigns.
  219. Campaign management systems
    Guide users through marketing campaigns by performing such tasks as campaign definition, planning, scheduling, segmentation, and success analysis.
  220. Cross-selling
    Selling additional products or services to existing customers.
  221. Up-selling
    Increasing the value of the sale.
  222. Customer service and support (CSS)
    A part of operational CRM that automates service requests, complaints, product returns, and info requests.
  223. Sales force automation (SFA)
    Automatically tracks all the steps in the sales process.
  224. The three primary operational CRM technologies a sales dept. can adopt are:
    • Sales management CRM systems
    • Contact management CRM systems
    • Opportunity management CRM systems
  225. Sales management CRM systems
    Automate each phase of the sales process.
  226. Contact management CRM system
    Maintains customer contact info. and identifies prospective customers for future sales, using tools such as organizational charts, detailed customer notes, and supplemental sales info.
  227. Opportunity management CRM system
    Target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales.
  228. 3 CRM technologies for customer service:
    • Contact center
    • Web-based self-service
    • Call scripting
  229. Website personalization
    Occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person's likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person.
  230. Supplier relationship management (SRM)
    Focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects.
  231. Partner relationship management (PRM)
    Discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers.
  232. Employee relationship management (ERM)
    Provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the HR dept. 
  233. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
    Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems).
  234. Core ERP components
    The traditional components included in most ERP systems and primarily focus on internal operation. 
  235. Extended ERP components
    The extra components that meet organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.
  236. 3 most common core ERP components focusing on internal operations are:
    • Accounting and finance
    • Production and materials management
    • HR
  237. Accounting and finance ERP components
    Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.
  238. Production and materials management ERP components
    Handle production planning and execution tasks such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.
  239. Human resources ERP components
    Track employee info including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment and ensure compliance with all laws.
  240. The 4 most common extended ERP components are:
    • Business intelligence
    • Customer relationship management
    • Supply chain management
    • Ebusiness
  241. Elogistics
    Manages the transportation and storage of goods.
  242. Eprocurement
    The B2B online purchase and sale of supplies and services.
  243. Balanced scorecard
    A management system, as well as a measurement system, that a firm uses to translate business strategies into executable tasks.
  244. 4 perspectives of the balanced scorecard to monitor an organization:
    • The learning and growth perspective
    • The internal business process perspective
    • The customer perspective
    • The financial perspective
  245. Legacy system
    An old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization.
  246. Conversion
    The process of transferring info from a legacy system to a new system.
  247. Software customization
    Modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements.
  248. Off-the-shelf application software
    Supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organization's needs. 
  249. Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
    The overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance.
  250. 7 distinct phases of the SDLC:
    • 1. Planning
    • 2. Analysis
    • 3. Design
    • 4. Development
    • 5. Testing
    • 6. Implementation
    • 7. Maintenance
  251. Planning phase
    Establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals.
  252. Project
    A temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result.
  253. Project management
    The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
  254. Project plan
    A formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project.
  255. Analysis phase
    Here the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system.
  256. Business requirements
    The specific business requests the system must meet to be successful, so the analysis phase is critical because business requirements drive the entire systems development effort.
  257. Requirements management
    The process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project.
  258. Requirements definition document
    Prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company.
  259. Sign-off
    The users' actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements.
  260. Design phase
    Establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, psuedo code, and other documentation.
  261. Development phase
    Takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system.
  262. Software engineering
    Takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system.
  263. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
    Software engineers use these tools, which provide automated support for the development of the system.
  264. Control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
    A set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors.
  265. Scripting language
    A programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website.
  266. Object-oriented languages
    Group data and corresponding processes into objects.
  267. Fourth-generation languages (4GL)
    Programming languages that look similar to human languages.
  268. Testing phase
    Brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase.
  269. Bugs
    Are defects in the code of an info system.
  270. Test conditions
    Detail the steps the system must perform along with the expected result of each step.
  271. Implementation phase
    The organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it.
  272. User documentation
    In the implementation phase, the detailed user documentation is created that highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems.
  273. Maintenance phase
    The org. performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business goals.
  274. Corrective maintenance
    Makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues.
  275. Preventive maintenance
    Makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure.
  276. Waterfall methodology
    A sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next (see page 351).
  277. Prototyping
    A modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system.
  278. Discovery prototyping
    Builds a small-scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements.
  279. Iterative developement
    Consists of a series of tiny projects. 
  280. Agile methodology
    Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements.
  281. Primary forms of agile methodoligies include (4):
    Rapid prototyping or rapid application development methodology

    Extreme programming methodology

    Rational unified process (RUP) methodology

    Scrum methodology
  282. Rapid application development (RAD) methodology
    • AKA Rapid prototyping
    • Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process.
  283. Extreme programming (XP) methodology
    Like other agile methods, breaks a project into 4 phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete.
  284. Rational unified process (RUP) methodology
    Owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into 4 "gates." Each gate consists of executable iterations of the software in development. A project stays in a gate waiting for the stakeholder's analysis, and then it either moves to the next gate or is cancelled.

    The gates include:

    Gate one: inception

    Gate two: elaboration

    Gate three: construction

    Gate four: transition
  285. Scrum methodology
    Another agile methodology, scrum methodology, uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of "sprints," or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal.
  286. Tangible benefits
    Easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success or failure of a project.
  287. Intangible benefits
    Difficult to quantify or measure.
  288. Feasibility
    The measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system.
  289. Triple constraint
    The framework for evaluating the time, cost, and scope - all interdependent variables in any project.

    The relationship among these variable is such that if any one changes, at least one other is likely to be affected.
  290. SMART
    • S - Specific
    • M - Measurable 
    • A - Agreed upon
    • R - Realistic
    • T - Time frame

    Each project must be "SMART"
  291. Kill switch
    A trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion.
  292. PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart
    A graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them. 
  293. Dependency
    A logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone.
  294. Critical path
    Estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish.
  295. Gantt chart
    A simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame, listed horizontally.
  296. In-sourcing (in-house development)
    Uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its info technology systems.
  297. Onshore outsourcing
    Engaging another company within the same country for services.
  298. Nearshore outsourcing
    Contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country.
  299. Offshore outsourcing
    Using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems. The country is geographically far away.
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MIS Final
2013-12-07 23:26:56
MIS Final

MIS Final
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