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Where did the Cretan (Minoan) civilization originate from and what is their name from?
Minoans, from King Menes, originated from Asia Minor to Crete
Recap the Minoan civilization
After settlement, very prosperous with palaces and Script A and shit like a labyrinth, then they died at 1600 BC, then alive, and then died again at 1400 BCE because of fires FUCK U MYCEANEANS OR VOLCANO
Why is Ancient Greece considered the birthplace of Western Civilization?
The first major power in 4500 BCE in Ancient Greece is
When were the first Olympics?
What was the purpose of the Olympics?
WORSHIP ZEUS HELL TO THE YEAHZ
Were there flaws in Greek democracy?
Yes, as only men and wealthy were cool
What did Draco do for democracy?
Codified Athenian Law for ALL THE CITIZENS = universal rights
Who codified Athenian Law?
Who led to universal rights?
DRACOOOOOO ma main man
What did Solon do for democracy?
No more debt, let everyone in public office, Council of 400, very important as his reforms laid the foundation of DEMOCRACY!
(Greece) Who cancelled debts of slaves, let everyone in public office, and formed the Council of 400?
What did Pisistratus do for democracy?
- Divided Africa and gave it to the landless
- Established system of state loans
- Created 30 judges superseding authority
Who divided Africa, established a system of state loans, and created 30 judges superseding the authority?
Pisistratus [spell it]
What did Cleisthenes do for democracy?
- Council 500 - 10 tribes so everyone in Athenian society can participate
- Reforms to save citizens from tyrants
Who created the Council 500 - 10 tribes so everyone in Athenian society can participate & reforms to save citizens from tyrants
Cleisthenes (spell it)
What four major people were important in the foundation of democracy?
Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleisthenes
What was the role of women in relation to democracy?
True or false: Athenian legal system reflects direct democracy
Was religion important in Greek lives? Why or why not? Where was religion?
Yes - gods and goddesses controlled everything. Each home had a Greek god. However, religion was more based on preference; Greeks were more scientifical
What did Greeks discover in relation to medicine, math, and astronomy?
- Herbs, drugs, ointments, well health man u dun need no god
- Pi, geometry
- Solar year of 364 days of 12 months
True or false: Romans created he first calender system/solar year
FALSE BWUAHAHAHAHHA GREEKS MOTHAFUCKAAAA
Summarize the Illiad!
- paris = priam king of troy vs menalaus = agamemnon king of greece
- Agamemmnon stole girlz and then a plague was like no so he gave her back and steals achilles' gal so then achilles vs agamemnon
- patroklos dies for achielles and achilles is like wow fuck you guys and kills hektor
- funerals guise!!!
What is the order of philosophers?
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle [all students of each other aw cuties]
What is Socrates do?
- ugly guy made the Socratic method - question ALL THE THINGS!
- people can know what is true and good if people shown right thing to do aw
- soul is a quality that makes us individual
- died of atheism and hemlock
question good souls
Questioned all things, people can know what is true and good if shown right thing, soul quality - WHO IS DIS PHILOSOPHER
What did Plato do?
- Wrote Dialogue and Republic outlining the ideal state guided by four basic virtues: love, wisdom, courage, and moderation
- Made the Academy
Made the Academy and wrote the Dialogue and the Republic: WHO'S THAT POKEMON?
What did Aristotle do?
- believed reality existed in objects [animism]
- Wrote Ethics and Politics - we learn so by doing virtuous things with practice & what makes a government good or bad
- Founded biology
- Established school in Lyceum
- Expanded on scientific method
Who founded biology?
Who expanded on the scientific method?
Name the three Persian Wars
Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis
What happened in the Marathon War?
- Persians sailed south to Marathon
- Athenians sent a professional messenger to Sparta running for four days for help. He came back and said Spartans would come after full moon
- So then Athenians went to Marathon to meet with Persians with the help of the Plataea
- Greeks charged at Persians and cut them
What happened in the Thermopylae war?
- Xerxes crossed Hellespoint
- Greeks unprepared but made 200 ships and their strategy was to defend themselves against Persian invaders.
- Spartan army held pass until full Greek army arrived
- Greek shepherd was a snake to Xerxes and showed them a mountain path around Thermopylae
What happened in the Salamis war?
- 300 Greek ships at Salamis vs 600 Persian ships
- Greeks swift and won
What is Sparta?
An important city state in Greece
Sparta had how many kings?
What were the three classes in Sparta?
- Citizens (only men, but women had more freedom here than anywhere else)
What was valued in Sparta?
Being trained to be a soldier
What made the Golden Age of Classical Greece?
What caused the Peloponnesian War? (i.e. what reasons were the rivalry between Athens and Sparta?)
- Athens tried expanding the Empire in Central Greece, Sparta's power base
- Athens blocked cities from trading at Athenian ports
- Sparta ruled by Aristocrats, while Greece was democratic
Athens is a hog and government differences
Who won in the Peloponnesian War?
Why did Sparta win against Athens in the Peloponnesian War?
- Plague killed 1/3 of people
- Spartans allowed themselves with Sicilians and Persians
- Sparta stopped grain from reaching Athens
Who was Alexander the Great's father?
King Phillip II
What did Alexander the Great do?
He conquered a lot of land
What was Alexander the Great's army like?
With an army of 30 000 foot solider and 5 000 cavalry (small) - he took everyone.
Outline Alexander the Great's route to success
- Granicus River vs. Persians
- Western Asia
Why was Alexander the Great so great?
Instead of enslaving them, he made people pay homage to him to sustain the empire and know the culture
Who was Pericles?
A politician who made a cool speech
What was Pericles' speech about?
Extolled virtues of Athenian life and highlighted all that is good about Athens
Who were the Etruscans?
Civilization that founded Rome in northern parts of Italy when Greek colonized southern portion
What civilization lied in the northern part of Italy?
What are frescoes
Adopted Greek alphabet to their alphabet, creating Latin
- Expected to serve in army when needed
- Compulsory military training with weapons provided by Rome
Who founded Rome/first king of the Etruscans
Who is Romulus
- First king of Rome, has a twin named Remus, raised by wolves
- Committed fratricide over who was gonna king
Who is the last Etruscan king
- L. Tarquinine Superbus, aka rebel
- He raped Lucretia, which then sparked the need of a Roman Republic
Who is L. Tarquinine Superbus?
The last Etruscan king who raped Lucretia U BUTT
Who is Lucretia
girl who got raped and sparked the Roman Republic
What contributions did the Etruscans have?
- Urban drainage system
- Walled cities
Why did the Roman Republic fail? (5)
- Government failed to provide grants for soldiers
- Leaders plunge Rome
- Internal, Italian wars
- Dominant external power of Carthage (Punic Wars)
- Renewed class warfare
- Soliders no grant
- Bad leaders
- Italian Wars
- Punic Wars
- Class warfare
What is the story of Romulus?
- Romulus wanted to be king!!! but he had a dumb brother named Remus GRRRRRR.
- When they were just kids they floated along the Tiber River to get away from crazy uncle Amuliuswho wanted them dead
- Basket went to Palestine where they were raised
- They argued and Romulus won and that's how Rome was founded!!!!!
What is a republic?
Elected representative votes for you (res publica)
Why did a Republic form?
Discontent of the tyrannical Etruscan monarchy
In the Roman Republic, what was the name of the leaders replacing the aristocracy?
What is the term for ordinary citizens voting?
What is the Assembly?
Ordinary citizens voting
Tension between what groups is in the history of the Roman Republic?
Patricians and plebeians
What are the Twelve Tables?
- Codified Roman laws to break patrician and upper class monopolization of laws
- Basic legal procedures
What Roman law was codified?
The Twelve Tables
What was the first Punic war?
- Rome vs. Sicily, Carthage, and Syracuse
- Rome wins and adds Syracuse and Sicily and defeat Carthage
- Carthage goes for Spain instead
Rome vs. Sicily, Carthage, and Syracuse
Rome wins and adds Syracuse and Sicily and defeat Carthage
First Punic War
What is the second Punic war?
- Hannibal takes big journey with 36 000 troops and 37 elephants and conquers Italian peninsula to get back at Rome
- Four great battles with Roman losses
- Rome attacked Carthage again before Hannibal arrived and peace treaty but then Carthage is like no and then Rome attacked again
Hannibal's big journey, Carthage pays to fix stuff
Second Punic War
What is the third Punic War?
- Carthage insults Roman
- Rome invades and burns things to the ground and steals
- Carthagian Holocaust; annihilated culture
- Survivors would be Roman slaves
Third Punic War
Name Roman Victories
- Unification of Italy
- Defeats Carthage, thus giving Rome control of North Africa & provinces in Spain
- Macedonia and Greece conquered
- Pergamum province of Asia Minor
- Southern Gaul conquered
CONQUERED ITALY, CARTHAGE, NORTH AFRICA, SPAIN, MACEDONIA, GREECE, PREGAMUM, AND SOUTHERN GAUL
What are some issues in the Roman Republic?
- Patricians vs plebians
- Roman citizenship
- Bad leaders
- Poor want rights
How is the Roman Senate elected?
300 members chosen from aristocracy
Who were citizens in Rome?
Adult male landowners
How did Rome become an Empire?
- After the Punic Wars, Rome was very imperialistic - control over foreign lands, evident in all the conquered lands. The gap between the rich and the poor widened to corruption and riots. They needed social and political reforms
- First people to try were the Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius. Senate no like, bye bye
- Julius Caesar came and forced to be dictator after defeating Pompey. Made many reforms like giving ppl outside of Italy to be citizens and solidier's pay
- Octavian and Antony avenged his death. Octavian and he is now Augustus. First emperor
What did Julius Caesar do?
- Force himself to be dictator
- Gave people in other provinces outside Italy citizenship
- Increased soldier's pay
What did Augustus do?
- Built stable government for empire
- Ordered a census for fair taxes
- Share control over provinces of Senate
Built stable government for empire
Ordered a census for fair taxes
Share control over provinces of Senate
Force himself to be dictator
Gave people in other provinces outside Italy citizenship
Increased soldier's pay
What did the Gracchi brothers do?
- Enforced power between plebians and patricians
- Redistributing land
- Free monthly supply of grain
- Proposed new colonies for resettlement in Capua, Taranto, and Carthage
- Give rights to non-Romans
Enforced power between plebians and patricians
Free monthly supply of grain
Proposed new colonies for resettlement in Capua, Taranto, and Carthage
Give rights to non-Romans
What is Epicureanism?
- Roman philosophy in the Republican era by Epicurus
- Advocated pursuit of happiness, pleasure, and absence of pain - one naturally pursuits such things and you can't avoid pain by being selfish
- World is made of atoms and when you die, atoms are released
What is Stoicism?
One need not worry but to accept whatever life provides
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Romans conquered Italian peninsula
Romans wants to expand
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Romans invade Sicily
First Punic War
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal attacked Saguntum
Saguntum fell, second Punic war
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal got to Italy
Recruited more men
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Scipio conquered Spain for Rome
North Africa is next >:)
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Hannibal defeated
Carthage gave up control of Spain
CAUSE AND EFFECT: Carthage rebelled against Rome
Rome destroyed once and for all in third Punic War
Who were considered as condemned criminals?
What happened to condemned criminals in the gladiator arena?
They entered the arena weaponless
What happened to criminals who didn't commit a capital crime?
Sent to gladiator school, ludi
What is ludi?
Private gladiator school
Roman citizens known as infamus sold themselves to _______ (gladiator trainers), and were known as _________.
Where is a famous gladiator school?
What's a word for gladiator games?
What were gladiator games used for, asides from funerals?
What was the format of the gladiator game?
- Editor [sponsor of games] holds parade with combantants
- Mock fights
- Animal displays
- Execution of criminals of heinous crimes
- Individual gladiatorial combat
True or false: gladiators were killed
Where were gladiator battles?
- Followed Augustus' policies
- Held treason trials
- Public assemblies to approve Senate
- No respect of Senate
- Pardoned political prisoners
- Treasury to build lavish projects
- Built stuff
- Extended Roman citizenship
- Great Fire
- Force people to listen to his concerts
- Plot mum's murder
- No war except for defense
- Non-Italian emperor
- Built stuff
- Secret service
- Financial subsides for everyone
- Divided Rome
- Promote unity of Christianity and Judaism
Why were Christian persecuted in Rome?
Christians used as scapegoat for a great fire destroying much of the city
What are factors determining social status in Rome?
- Born a free man/citizen/slave
Why is family a foundation of Roman society?
Family status & prestige marked an individual's place in society
Why did the Roman Empire fall? (3)
- 1. Diocletian divided Rome into two, having Rome no longer the capital of Empire and Rome lost power
- 2. Christianity
- 3. Bad emperors; barbarians overthrew government
Julius or Augustus?
- He wanted to rebuild temples and other public facilities, instituted civil service, peace, resdistributed provinces, allowed Senate control with less military right
- Census for fair taxing
Fusion of Greek style and Roman innovation
What led to the acceptance of Christianity all over Roman Empire?
Edith of Milan, Constatine
What is pax romana?
200 years of peace and stability in Rome
What was the temple in Athens that was also considered to be a symbol of the city?
temple in Athens that was also considered to be a symbol of the city