female reproductive system chapter 6

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herangelwings
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251063
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female reproductive system chapter 6
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2013-12-05 17:38:43
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IBS 102
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chapter 6
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  1. the female gamete
    ovum

    (pl. ova)
  2. the first menstrual period
    menarche
  3. the cessation of mestruation
    menopause  

    (syn. climacteric)
  4. female gonads
    ovaries
  5. small, almond-shaped, paired organs located on either side of the uterus in the female pelvic cavity
    ovaries
  6. the ducts that convey the ova from the ovaries to the uterus
    fallopian tubes
  7. tiny, secretory sacs within an ovary
    follicles
  8. an endocrine gland located in the cranial cavity that secretes two hormones that influence the activity of ovaries
    pituitary gland
  9. causes the ovarian follicles to begin to mature and secrete estrogen
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  10. released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland because of the increase of estrogen in the blood stream
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  11. LH stimulates the follicle to mature and release its ovum
    ovulation
  12. a tiny, yellow endocrine structure responsible for secreting estrogen and progesterone
    corpus luteum
  13. hormones responsible for female secondary sex characteristics and teh cyclical maintenance of the uterus for pregnancy
    estrogen and progesterone
  14. the feathery end of the fallopian tube
    fimbraie

    (sing. fimbria)
  15. tubes about the width and length (10 to 12 cm) of a pencil that transport the ovum to the uterus
    fallopian tubes

    (oviducts or uterine tubes)
  16. the funnel-shaped area adjacent to each fimbria
    infundibulum
  17. structure along the length of the fallopian tube named for its bottle shape
    ampulla
  18. the narrowed area of the fallopian tubes close to the uterus
    fallopian isthmus
  19. three layers of the uterus
    • perimetrium
    • myometrium
    • endometrium
  20. the outer layer of the uterus
    perimetrium

    (serosa)
  21. muscle layer of the uterus
    myometrium
  22. the lining of the uterus
    endometrium
  23. disorders that involve the layers of the uterus
    intramural
  24. the large central area of the uterus
    corpus
  25. the raised area at the top of the uterus between the outlets for the fallopian tubes
    fundus
  26. the narrowed lower area, often referred to as the neck of the uterus
    cervix
  27. two openings of the cervix
    • internal os
    • external os
  28. a space in the pelvic cavity between the uterus and the retum
    rectouterine pouch

    (Douglas' cul-de-sac)
  29. the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus are held in place by folds of
    mesentery
  30. the external female genitalia
    vulva
  31. vaginal opening
    orifice
  32. membrane covering the vaginal opening
    hymen
  33. two folds of skin surrounding teh vaginal opening
    • labia majora
    • labia minora
  34. sensitive, erectile tissue
    clitoris
  35. paired glands in the vulva that secrete a mucous lubricant for the vagina
    the greater vestibular glands

    (Bartholin's glands)
  36. located in the vagina near the outlet of the urethra and have a function similar to the male prostate, providing fluid during ejaculation
    lesser vestibular glands

    (Skene's or paraurethral glands)
  37. composed of fatty (adipose) tissue, fibrous connective tissue,  milk-producing glands and ducts, lymphatic tissue, and blood vessels
    breast

    (mammary glands)
  38. the nipple of the breast
    mammary papilla
  39. darker-colored skin surrounding the nipple
    areola
  40. the main  hormone associated with the formation and production of milk (lactogenesis)
    prolactin
  41. hormone  responsible for the release of the milk produced
    oxytocin
  42. any noncancerous, abnormal formation of breast tissue
    benign mammary dysplasia
  43. an abnormal discharge of milk from the breast
    galactorrhea
  44. enlargement of either unilateral or bilateral breast tissue in the male
    gynecomastia
  45. breast pain
    mastodynia
  46. downward displacement of the breast
    mastoptosis
  47. inflammation of Bartholin's gland
    bartholinitis
  48. inflammation of the cervix
    cervicitis
  49. a general term that usually refers to a bacterial infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries
    female pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  50. inflammation of an ovary
    oophoritis
  51. inflammation of the fallopian tubes
    salpingitis
  52. inflammation of the external female genitalia
    vuvitis
  53. lack of menstrual flow
    amenorrhea
  54. precancerous changes in the tissue lining the cervix. measured in grades to indicate the degree of change away from normal formation
    cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I and II
  55. herniation of the urinary bladder into the vagina
    cystocele
  56. abnormal uterine bleeding not caused by a tumor, inflammation, or pregnancy
    dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)
  57. painful menstrual flow, cramps
    dysmenorrhea
  58. painful intercourse
    dyspareunia
  59. an excessive development of cells in the lining of the uterus; this condition is benign but can become malignant
    endometrial hyperplasia
  60. condition in which the tissue that makes up the lining of the uterus, the endometrium, is found ectopically (outside the uterus)
    endometriosis
  61. condition of blood in the fallopian tubes
    hematosalpinx
  62. falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal location in the body.
    hysteroptosis

    (uterine prolapse)
  63. both excessive menstrual flow and uterine bleeding other than caused by menstruation
    menometrorrhagia
  64. abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual period; may be an indication of fibroids
    menorrhagia
  65. uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation. may be caused by uterine lesions
    metrorrhagia
  66. pain during ovulation; midcycle pain
    mittelschmerz
  67. abnormally light or infrequent menstrual flow
    oligomenorrhea
  68. refers to the normal discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus
    menorrhea
  69. benign, fluid-filled sac.
    ovarian cyst
  70. abnormally frequent menstrual flow
    polymenorrhea
  71. dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) after menopause. may be due to fibroids or cancer
    postmenopausal bleeding (PMB)
  72. poorly understood group of symptoms that occur in some women on a cyclic basis: breast pain, irritability, fluid retention, headache, and lack of coordination are some of the symptoms
    premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  73. a protrusion of the rectum into the vagina
    rectocele
  74. condition in which the fundus of the uterus is bent backward, forming an angle with the cervix
    retroflexion of the uterus
  75. when the entire uterus is bent backward
    retroversion
  76. idiopathic syndrome of nonspecific complaints of pain of the vulva
    vulvodynia
  77. also termed "cervical dysplasia", this abnormal cell growth may or may not develop into cancer. Grade III is the most severe
    cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III
  78. noncancerous breast tumors composed of fibrous and glandular tissues
    fibroadenoma of the breast
  79. smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, usually nonpainful growths, which may be removed surgically
    leiomyoma of the uterus

    (fibroids)
  80. by far the most common cancer of the uterus, this type develops from the cells that line the uterus
    endometrial adenocarcinoma
  81. an inherited mutation of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is linked to the risk of this malignancy and breast cancer
    epithelial ovarian cancer
  82. the most common type of breast cancer, infiltrating ductal carcinoma arises from the cells that line the milk ducts
    infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC)
  83. a rare type of cancer of the smooth muscle of the uterus
    leiomyosarcoma
  84. these tumors begin in the glandular tissue of the breast at the ends of the milk ducts. about 15% of breast cancers
    lobular carcinoma
  85. also termed "dermoid cyst", these usually noncancerous ovarian growths arise from germ cells
    mature teratoma of the ovary
  86. a rare form of cancer, this malignancy of the nipple can occur in men and women
    Paget's disease of the breast
  87. the most common type of cervical cancer. Thought to be caused by HPV, it is also one of the most curable cancers if detected in its early stage
    squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
  88. resection (removal) of the uterine cervix
    cervicectomy
  89. removal of the clitoris. referred to as "female circumcision" in some cultures
    clitoridectomy
  90. fixation of the vagina to an adjacent structure to hold it in place
    colpopexy
  91. surgical repair of the vagina
    colpoplasty
  92. endoscopic procedure used for a cervical/vaginal biopsy.
    colposcopy
  93. endoscopic procedure used for biopsy of Douglas' cul-de-sac.
    culdoscopy
  94. procedure involving widening (dilation) of the cervix until a curette, a sharp scraping tool, can be inserted to remove the lining of the uterus (curettage). Used to treat and diagnose conditions such as heavy menstrual bleeding, or to empty the uterus of the products of conception
    dilation and curettage (D&C)
  95. incision of the hymen to enlarge vaginal opening
    hymenotomy
  96. resection of the uterus; may be partial, pan-. or include other organs as well
    hysterectomy
  97. suspension and fixation of a prolapsed uterus
    hysteropexy
  98. x-ray procedure in which contrast medium is used to image the uterus and fallopian tubes
    hysterosalpingography (HSG)
  99. plastic surgery of the uterine cervix, usually for repair of a laceration
    hysterotracheloplasty
  100. a procedure done to remove abnormal cells in cervical dysplasia
    loop electocautery excision procedure (LEEP)
  101. imaging technique for the early detection of breast cancer
    mammography
  102. surgical or cosmetic repair of the breast
    mammoplasty
  103. removal of the breast; may be unilateral or bilateral
    mastectomy
  104. reconstructive procedure to lift and fixate the breast
    mastopexy
  105. removal of an ovary; may be unilateral or bilateral
    oophorectomy
  106. exfoliative cytology procedure useful for the detection of vaginal and cervical cancer
    pap smear
  107. removal of the adhesions in the fallopian tubes to reestablish patency, with the goal of fertility
    salpingolysis
  108. sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are cut, ligated (tied), and cauterized to prevent released ova from being fertilized by spermatozoa
    tubal ligation
  109. injection of particles to block a uterine artery supplying blood to a fibroid with resultant death of fibroid tissue.
    uterine artery embolization (UAE)

    (fibroid embolization)
  110. an incision of the vagina. may be incidental during a cesarean section
    vaginotomy

    (colpotomy)

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