History 2

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History 2
2013-12-12 23:47:50
Final Exam

Political history 2
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  1. Anti-War Movement
    Many college students were exempt from the draft.  The movement grew in 1966 when student deferments to avoid the war were no longer allowed.  Many young men burned their draft cards or flew to Canada
  2. Betty Friedan and The Feminine Mytique
    In the 1950's, Betty wrote about the emptiness of consumer culture and the discontents of the middle class.  Became founding member of NOW  The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
  3. " Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo"
    Casey Hayden and Mary King circulated this paper on women in the civil rights movement based on their experiences as Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee volunteers.  Ruby Doris Smith Robinson was a black member of SNCC wrote and complained of unequal treatment for women.   It is widely regarded as one of the first documents of the emerging women's liberation movement.
  4. Sexual Revolution and the Birth Control Pill
    Starting in the 1960's, the mass marketing or birth-control pills made possible what " free lovers " had long demanded- the separation of sex from procreation.  Many argued that the pill was the main reason for the counter revolution.
  5. Gloria Steinem
    She is a feminist, journalist and social and political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader and media spokeswomen for women's liberation movement in the 1960's to 1970's.  Made sexual exploitation of women and abortion a public issue
  6. Roe V. Wade
    1973, made abortion legal in U.S. claiming prohibiting abortion violates 9th and 14th amendments of the constitution
  7. Phyllis Schlafly and Equal Rights Amendment
    Phyllis McAlpin Stewart Schlafly born August 15, 1924) is an American constitutional lawyer, conservative activist, author, and founder of the Eagle Forum. She is known for her opposition to modern feminism and for her campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment.  The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and, in 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time.
  8. Cesar Chaves and Dolores Huerta
    Cesar led a series of nonviolent protests, including marches, fasts, and a national boycott of California grapes, to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts with the UFW.  Dolores Huerta was a labor leader and civil rights activists who along with Cesar co-founded the national farm workers association later became the united farm workers.
  9. United Farm Workers Union
    Organized by Cesar Chaves and Dolores Huerta to organize farm workers in 1963.  Wages depressed because of Mexican Immigrant labor, and activists successfully ended bracero.  Organized strike against California grapes
  10. American Indian Movement
    Founded by George Mitchell and Dennis Banks.  Native Americans experienced most political and economic desperate circumstances of any minority group.  300 members and supporters of AIM occupied Alcatrae to bring attention to problems in 1969.
  11. Gay Liberation and the Stonewall Riot
    The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against apolice raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for gay and lesbian rights in the United States.  The gay liberation movement of the late 1960s and early to mid-1970s urged lesbians and gay men to "come out", publicly revealing their sexuality to family, friends and colleagues as a form of activism, and to counter shame with gay pride. Coming out and pride parades have remained an important part of modern LGBT movements, and the visibility of lesbian and gay communities has continued to grow. The movement involved the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand.
  12. Environmentalism and Earth Day
    In the 1960's and 70's the Clean air and clean water acts  and the endangered species.  1970 was the first Earth Day.  20 million people participated in rallies concerts and teach ins.
  13. " Vietnamization " of the Vietnam War
    During the Vietnam War the U.S. program of turning over to the South Vietnamese government responsibility for waging the conflict in order to implement with with drawl of the U.S. military personal.  Train South Vietnamese forces and reduce the amount of U.S. troops
  14. War Powers Act of 1973
    The War Powers Resolution of 1973 is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. The resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution; this provides that the President can send U.S. armed forcesinto action abroad only by declaration of war by Congress
  15. Carter's Human rights foreign policy
    In 1978, Carter cut off aid to the brutal military dictatorship governing Argentina.  He believed that in the post- Vietnam era, American foreign policy should de-emphasize Cold War thinking.  Carter felt combating poverty in the Third World, preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, and promoting human rights should take priority over what he called the inordinate fear of communism.  he believed in peaceful solutions to international problems. He brought the leaders of Egypt and Israel to the presidential retreat at Camp David and brokered a historic peace agreement between the two countries.
  16. Neoconservatives
    They were a group of intellectuals who charged the 1960's had produced a decline in moral standard and respect for authority.  They had come to believe that even well intentioned government social programs did more harm than good
  17. Red Bating
    The act of attacking or persecuting as a communist.  Anti- Communist
  18. House Un-American Activities Committee
    The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.  In 1947 the HUAC launched a series of hearings about communist influence in Hollywood.  Calling well known screenwriters, directs and actors to appear before the committee ensured a wave of national publicity.
  19. Joseph McCarthy and McCarthysim
    Joseph McCarthey was a Republican Senator from Wisconson who claimed to have the names of 205 communists working in the state department.  Used Tyding to intimidate people.  Post-World War II Red Scare focused on the fear of communists in the U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War.  Joseph was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere.
  20. Levittown
    Low-cost, mast produced developments of suburban tract housing built by William Levitt after World War II on Long Island and else  war
  21. Suburbanization
    It is the growth of areas outside the city.  Causes an increase in Urban Sprawl.  People moved to the suburbs to get out of the dense cities.
  22. Redlining
    Refuse ( A loan or insurance ) to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk.  Kept African Americans out of suburban communities.
  23. League of United Latin American Citizens
    LULAC, the equivalent of NAACP, challenged restrictive housing, employment discrimination, and the segregation of Latino students.
  24. Brown v. Board of Education
    U.S. supreme court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared " separate but equal " unconstitutional.    The chief justice was Earl Warren.  Led to the Brown v. Board of education decision form the U.S. Supreme court
  25. White citizen's Council
    Some white southerners channeled their ire into a new movement called Citizens Council Organization of white segregationists who opposed integration and the supreme court decision that abolished all segregation.
  26. 5The Southern Manifesto
    101 member of U.S. senate and house of representatives from southern states signed the " Southern Manifesto" They did not like the Brown v. Board of Education decision.  They wanted segregation
  27. Emmett Till
    Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman. Till was from Chicago, Illinois, visiting his relatives in Money, Mississippi, in the Mississippi Delta region, when he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the married proprietor of a small grocery store there.
  28. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Montgomery Bus Boycott sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks was a 13 month mass protest that ended with the supreme court ruling that segregation on public buses is unconstitutional. Rosa Parks was a 42 year old African American seamstress who boarded the Montgomery city bus to go home from work.  In the refusal to give up her seat she sparked a new era in the American quest for freedom and equality
  29. Southern Leadership Christian Council
    They wanted to ensure economic justice and civil rights, to get rid of racism.  It was founded by MLK.
  30. Little Rock Central High School.  Desegregation Crisis
    Central High School was the site of forced school desegregation during the American Civil Rights Movement.  The Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower.The U.S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U.S. 483, on May 17, 1954. The decision declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional, and it called for the desegregation of all schools throughout the nation.
  31. Sit-In movements and Freedom Rides
    Sit-ins were a tactic used by young civil rights activists beginning in 1960, of demanding services at lunch counters or public accommodations and refusing to leave if denied access.  Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960),[1] which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
  32. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
    Founded in 1960 to coordinate civil rights sit-ins and other forms of grassroots protests.  They were dedicated to replacing the culture of segregation with a " beloved community " of racial justice and to empowering ordinary blacks to take control of the decisions that affected their lives.
  33. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations").Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years.
  34. Freedom Summer
    Freedom Summer (also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi, which had historically excluded most blacks from voting. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population.
  35. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting. The Act prohibits states and local governments from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color.
  36. Black Power and the Black Panther Party
    Activists shifted strategies to adress failures of non-violent disobedience.  The encouraged armed resistance.  Black Panther party fought police brutality after MLK jr. died
  37. Great Society and the war on poverty
    • Johnson provided health services to poor and elderly and
    • used federal funds for education and urban development.  Expanded the federal government.  Right after the civil rights act and
    • immigration reform.  Was meant to
    • eliminate poverty and racial injustice. 
    • It resembled the New Deal and some of Roosevelt’s policies. 

      The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass theEconomic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.As a part of the Great Society, Johnson believed in expanding the government's role in education and health care as poverty reduction strategies.
  38. Ho Chi Minh
    Ho Chi Minh was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president  of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War.He led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945.
  39. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and Operation
    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, Pub.L. 88–408, 78 Stat. 384, enacted August 10, 1964, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formaldeclaration of war by Congress, for the use of "conventional'' military force in Southeast Asia. Specifically, the resolution authorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist "any member or protocol state of theSoutheast Asia Collective Defense Treaty". This included involving armed forces.  On August 4, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson announced that two days earlier, U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. Johnson dispatched U.S. planes against the attackers and asked Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions. The joint resolution “to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia” passed on August 7
  40. Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained US 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), US Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against theDemocratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.The four objectives of the operation (which evolved over time) were to boost the sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam, to persuade North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam without actually taking any ground forces into communist North Vietnam, to destroy North Vietnam's transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses, and to cease the flow of men and materiel into South Vietnam. Attainment of these objectives was made difficult by both the restraints imposed upon the U.S and its allies by Cold War exigencies and by the military aid and assistance received by North Vietnam from its communist allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China (PRC).The operation became the most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War period; indeed, it was the most difficult such campaign fought by the U.S. Air Force
  41. Ho Chi Minh Trail
    The Hồ Chí Minh trail (known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from theDemocratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel, to theNational Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (called the Vietcong or "VC" by its opponents) and the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), or North Vietnamese Army, during the Vietnam War.It was named by the Americans for North Vietnamese president Hồ Chí Minh.  According to the United States National Security Agency's official history of the war, the Trail system was "one of the great achievements of military engineering of the 20th century.
  42. Tet Offense
    The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of theVietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam.[9]The operations are referred to as the Tet Offensive because there was a prior agreement to "cease fire" during theTet Lunar New Year celebrations. Both North and South Vietnam announced on national radio broadcasts that there would be a two-day cease-fire during the holiday. Nonetheless, the Communists launched an attack that began during the early morning hours of 30 January 1968, the first day of Tet.
  43. Young Americans for Freedom
    Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) is a  non-profit organization and is a project of Young America's Foundation. YAF is an ideologically conservative youth activism organization that was founded in 1960, as a coalition between traditional conservatives and libertarians. While the 1960s were its most successful years in terms of numbers and influence, YAF continues to be active as a national organization with chapters throughout the United States.  Some of its goals are to promote social welfare and individual freedom
  44. The New Left
    The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitatorsand others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights, abortion, gender roles and drugs.  They rejected involvement with thelabor movement and Marxism's historical theory of class struggle.[5] In the U.S., the "New Left" was associated with theHippie movement and anti-war college campus protest movements.
  45. The New Right
    New Right is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various policies or groups that are right-wing. It has also been used to describe the emergence of Eastern European parties after the collapse of the Soviet Union and systems using Soviet-style communism.  The NEW RIGHT was a combination of Christian religious leaders, conservative business bigwigs who claimed that environmental and labor regulations were undermining the competitiveness of American firms in the global market, and fringe political groups.
  46. Regan Revolution
    Dramatically changed things in America like few other presidents did.  Big military buildup.  Sent troops to many " Third World Countries " to combat dictatorship.  Iran-Contra affair- undermined confidence that he controlled his own administration
  47. Strategic Arms talks
    The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treatiesinvolving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. The two rounds of talks and agreements were SALT I and SALT II.  SALT I led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an interim agreement between the two countries.  Limit nuclear weapons.
  48. Strategic Defense Initiative
    Reagan called for a build up of resources would make the Soviet Union Intercontinental ballistic missles virtually useless.  This scared Gorbachev.  Space program.
  49. Reagan Doctrine
    Committed U.S. to supporting national liberation movements to nations that wanted to overthrow communist movements.
  50. Mikkail Gorbachev
    Worked with Reagan to end the Cold War.  He was frightened by star wars.  He believed it would advance U.S. technological capabilities
  51. Mujahedeen
    Groups resisting communist rule in Afghanistan.  U.S. began with Jimmy Carter
  52. Iran- Contra Scandal
    The Iran–Contra affair, was a political scandal in the United States that came to light in November 1986. During the Reagan administration, senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of anarms embargo.[1] Some U.S. officials also hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of several hostagesand allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras.  The scandal began as an operation to free the seven American hostages being held in Lebanon.  This was a major blunder in the Reagan Administration
  53. Tiananmen Square
    Over 1 million protestors issued a called for democracy.  Chinese troops used force to break up protest.  Thousands of people died in the protest
  54. Berlin Wall
    Separated East and West Berlin.  One side was communist.  Symbol of Cold War.  Fell in 1989
  55. End of Cold War
    President GW Bush declared end of cold war March 1989.  Soviet leadership held most elections in USSR history, pulled troops from Poland, Hungry and East Germany
  56. Operation Desert Storm
    The Gulf War codenamed Operation Desert Storm was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.  On February 24, the ground war began. Although the bombing lasted for weeks, American ground troops declared Kuwait liberated just 100 hours after the ground attack was initiated.
  57. Globalization
    Expansion of global markets.  Push for North American Trade Agreement.  Canada, U.S. and Mexico become free trade zones.  Greater communication between foreign countries and their economies.
  58. Defense Advance Research Projects Agency
    Worked to defeat communism.  Internet became avialible to every day people.  Produced many new technologies for the U.S. military
  59. World trade Organization
    The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements
  60. Cultural Wars
    Protests around the world.  Unfair treatment due to big businesses
  61. Freedom Revolution
    Republicans won control of both houses of Congress.  They proclaimed their triumph the " Freedom Revolution. "  Newt Gingrich, a conservative congressman who became the new speaker of the house, masterminded their campaign.  The House approved deep cuts in social, educational and environmental programs including the popular medicare system.
  62. Manhattan Project
    Secret American program during WWII to develop an atomic bomb.  Late 1941
  63. Franklin Delanor Roosevelt and the First New Deal
    The Roosevelt administration had 4 main goals, relief to jobless and homeless, economic recovery and social reforms, political realignment.
  64. Dr. Francis Townsend and the Townsend Plan
    His plan was for the government to make monthly payments of $200 to older Americans, with the requirement that they spend it immediately.  He said it would boost the economy.  It was a critic of the first new deal.  This led to Social Security
  65. Huey Long and the Share Our Wealth Movement
    Increase taxes on rich and confiscation of income for distribution as $2,500 family income.  Led to government tax on large fortunes and corporate profits.
  66. WPA
    It constructed thousands of public buildings and bides, more than 500,000 miles of road, and 600 airports.  it built stadiums, swimming pools and sewage treatment plants.  It set hundreds of artists to work decorating public buildings with murals.  It hired writers to produce local histories and guidebooks to forty-eight states and to record the recollections of ordinary Americans, including hundreds or former slaves.  People across America enjoyed live musicals and theatrical performances.
  67. American Liberty League
    It was an American political organization formed in 1934, primarily by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt and big business leaders
  68. STFU
    Promoted by racial coilation of share croppers and tenant farmers to get economic reform Originally set up during the Great Depression in the United States.  Reason it was set up was to  get better working conditions.
  69. Social Security Act of 1935
    Established unemployment insurance and old age pensions.  Created 2 tier welfare system that prioritized the make worker over the female care giver It embodied Roosevelt's conviction that the national government had a responsibility to ensure the material well-being of ordinary Americans.
  70. Mothers Pensions
    Provided for women and children when they did not have male bread winners.  Certain mothers were deemed important.  Didn't provide a living wage
  71. Frances Perkins
    First women appointed to the U.S. cabinet.  Architect for many New Deal Programs Perkins championed many aspects of the New Deal, including the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration and its successor the Federal Works Agency, and the labor portion of the National Industrial Recovery Act. With the Social Security Act she established unemployment benefits, pensions for the many uncovered elderly Americans, and welfare for the poorest Americans. She pushed to reduce workplace accidents and helped craft laws against child labor. Through the Fair Labor Standards Act, she established the first minimum wage and overtime laws for American workers, and defined the standard forty-hour work week. She formed governmental policy for working with labor unionsand helped to alleviate strikes by way of the United States Conciliation Service, Perkins resisted having American women be drafted to serve the military in World War II so that they could enter the civilian workforce in greatly expanded numbers.
  72. Fair labor standard act of 1938
    The FLSA introduced a maximum 44-hour seven-day workweek, established a national minimum wage guaranteed "time-and-a-half" for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited mostemployment of minors in "oppressive child labor"
  73. Four Freedoms
    The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address), he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:Freedom of speech Freedom of worship Freedom from want Freedom from fear.  He was saying that we had to enter WWII to do this
  74. War Production Board
    Created in 1942 to coordinate industrial efforts in World Word II.  It helped regulate the allocation of labor, control the shipping industry, establish manufacturing quotas, and fix wages, prices and rents.
  75. Servicemen’s Readjustment Act or GI Bill of Rights
    Provided college tuition mortgages and small business loans to returning vets from WWII
  76. Japanese Internment
    Leaders of the army and western defense comand recommended of internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans.  All people of Japanese desent were banned from Pacific coast.  Voluntary/ Force removal
  77. German Concentration/ Internment Camps
    U.S. new about these camps in 1942, they thought that winning the war would help save the 6 million jews and other groups.  People were tortured in the camps
  78. Bracero Program
    System agreed to by Mexican and American governments in 1942 under which tens of thousands of Mexicans entered the United States to work temporarily in agricultural jobs in the Southwest.  It lasted until 1964
  79. A. Philip Randolph
    Black leader called for a march on Washington. his demands included access to defense employment, an end to segregation and a national antilynching law.  Roosevelt issued executive order 8802, which banned discrimination in defense jobs established a FEPC to monitor compliance.
  80. Rosie the Riveter
    Female industrial laborer depicted as a muscular and self-reliant in Norman Rockwell's famous magazine cover.
  81. Atlantic Charter
    It was Issued in 1941 following meetings in Newfoundland between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill, the charter signaled the Allies' cooperation and stated their war aims.
  82. United Nations
    Organization of nations to maintain world peace.  It was established in 1945.  U.S. did not join
  83. Manhattan Project
    Secret American program during WWII to develop an atomic bomb
  84. Containment
    U.S. strategy in the Cold War that called for containing communist expansion.
  85. Truman Doctrine
    President Truman's program announced in 1947 of aid to European countries threatened by communism.  Truman put the policy of containment into effect.  He wanted to contain the spread of communism coming from Soviet Russia.  They aided Greece and Turkey
  86. Marshall Plan
    U.S. program for the reconstruction of post WWII Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies.  Plan was a huge success and helped rebuild the countries in Europe
  87. NSC- 68
    Truman asked national security council to have a plan that stopped the spread of communism. Called for ground forces to combat communsim and a tax increase to increase developement of hydrogen bomb
  88. Korean War
    Korea was divided in 1945 into Soviet and American Zones.  In 1950 the North Korean army invaded the south.  When UN forces neared the Chinese border, hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops intervened and pushed the U.S. back.  The war then settles into a stalemate around the thirty-eighth parallel.  An armistice was not agreed to until 1953.  More than 33,000 Americans died in Korea
  89. GrassRoots Conservation
    Tax revolt, California passes proposition reducing property taxes by 57%
  90. Family Values
    Phyllis Schlafty promoted " traditional family values " fought legislation that promoted feminism and conservaiton rights