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Main components of genetic information transfer
Amino acids and Nucleotides
Key reaction in formation of Nucleoprotein complex:
- Living S cell (Fatal)
- Living R cells (Non-fatal)
- Heat-killed S cells (Non-fatal)
- Heat-killed S cells and living R cells (Fatal)
- -Living S cells found in blood sample
- -Fatal nature of S cells survived heat-killing and transferred to R cells.
- Took RNA, Protein, DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates from S cells, added to R cells. Only the DNA cells became S cells.
- DNA is genetic material
- Took a bacteriophage, marked both protein coat and DNA.
- Observed infected bacteria
- Tracers from DNA, not protein, observed in bacteria
- DNA is infection vector for bacteria.
Two types of nucleic acids:
- Ribonucleic (have -OH at 2' posistion, RNA)
- deoxyRibonucleic (have -H at 2', DNA)
What are the Nucleosides:
- -Deoxyadenylate (dAMP)
- -Deoxyguanylate (dGMP)
- -Deoxythymidylate (dTMP)
- -Deoxycytidylate (dCMP)
- -Adenylate (AMP)
- -Guanylate (GMP)
- -Uridylate (UMP)
- -Cytidylate (CMP)
Chemical Components of a Nucleotide:
Phosphate, Pentose, Purine/Pyrimidine base
Nucleotides bases are what:
What kind of bond joins the nitrogenous base to the pentose?
Ribose adopts what forms in nucleotides
'Sugar Pucker" of Furanose rings
- One of the carbons or the oxygen is not in line, and can be 'in/endo' or 'out/exo' relative to the C5 chain that sticks out of the ring
- This can effect distance between phosphates when nucleotides bind together and ultimately can effect the shape of the helix
What type of bond links nucleic acids/how are they made
- (Involves a Phosphate and creates two esters between the P and the two nucleotides, thus phosphodiester)
- Phosphoryl transfer (transfer PPi for next nucleotide)
How many strands can a nucleic acid chain have?
1 or 2
- Bases pair with specific other bases when making double stranded
- A-T (2 bonds) and C-G (3 bonds)
- Hydrogen bonds
Bases have a specific distance between each other from Van der Waals forces, critical for stability
Nucleotide have a what confomation relative to pentose?
Hoogsteen base pairing enables what?
3 or 4 strands in a helix
What furanose ring conformation is standard?
C2' endo, B-DNA, W-C Double Helix
B-DNA conformation allows proteins to do what?
Contact nucleic acid bases
Key differences between RNA and DNA
- Suger is ribose, not deoxyribes
- RNA is TYPICALLY single stranded
- RNA is multi-functional: protein synthesis, gene expression, enzyme
SS RNA does what?
- Assumes varied complex secondary structures: