Biochem 501: Part IV.1: Genetic Transfer

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Biochem 501: Part IV.1: Genetic Transfer
2013-12-05 19:00:20
Biochem 501 FINAL

Biochem 501 FINAL
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  1. Main components of genetic information transfer
    Amino acids and Nucleotides
  2. Key reaction in formation of Nucleoprotein complex:
    Phosphoryl transfer
  3. Griffith's Experiment
    • Living S cell (Fatal)
    • Living R cells (Non-fatal)
    • Heat-killed S cells (Non-fatal)
    • Heat-killed S cells and living R cells (Fatal)
    •      -Living S cells found in blood sample
    •      -Fatal nature of S cells survived heat-killing and transferred to R cells.
  4. Avery Experiment:
    • Took RNA, Protein, DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates from S cells, added to R cells. Only the DNA cells became S cells.
    • DNA is genetic material
  5. Hershey-Chase:
    • Took a bacteriophage, marked both protein coat and DNA.
    • Observed infected bacteria
    • Tracers from DNA, not protein, observed in bacteria
    • DNA is infection vector for bacteria.
  6. Two types of nucleic acids:
    • Ribonucleic (have -OH at 2' posistion, RNA)
    • deoxyRibonucleic (have -H at 2', DNA)
  7. What are the Nucleosides:
    • Deoxyribonucleotides:
    • -Deoxyadenylate (dAMP)
    • -Deoxyguanylate (dGMP)
    • -Deoxythymidylate (dTMP)
    • -Deoxycytidylate (dCMP)
    • Ribonucleotides:
    • -Adenylate (AMP)
    • -Guanylate (GMP)
    • -Uridylate (UMP)
    • -Cytidylate (CMP)
  8. Chemical Components of a Nucleotide:
    Phosphate, Pentose, Purine/Pyrimidine base
  9. Nucleotides bases are what:
  10. What kind of bond joins the nitrogenous base to the pentose?
  11. Ribose adopts what forms in nucleotides
    beta-Furanose rings
  12. 'Sugar Pucker" of Furanose rings
    • One of the carbons or the oxygen is not in line, and can be 'in/endo' or 'out/exo' relative to the C5 chain that sticks out of the ring
    • This can effect distance between phosphates when nucleotides bind together and ultimately can effect the shape of the helix
  13. What type of bond links nucleic acids/how are they made
    • Phosphodiester
    • (Involves a Phosphate and creates two esters between the P and the two nucleotides, thus phosphodiester)
    • Phosphoryl transfer (transfer PPi for next nucleotide)
  14. How many strands can a nucleic acid chain have?
    1 or 2
  15. Base pairing
    • Bases pair with specific other bases when making double stranded
    • A-T (2 bonds) and C-G (3 bonds)
    • Hydrogen bonds
  16. Base stacking
    Bases have a specific distance between each other from Van der Waals forces, critical for stability
  17. Nucleotide have a what confomation relative to pentose?
  18. Two types of base-base bonding formations
    • Watson-Crick (anti-anti)
    • Hoogsteen (syn anti)
  19. Hoogsteen base pairing enables what?
    3 or 4 strands in a helix
  20. What furanose ring conformation is standard?
    C2' endo, B-DNA, W-C Double Helix
  21. B-DNA conformation allows proteins to do what?
    Contact nucleic acid bases
  22. Key differences between RNA and DNA
    • Suger is ribose, not deoxyribes
    • RNA is TYPICALLY single stranded
    • RNA is multi-functional: protein synthesis, gene expression, enzyme
  23. SS RNA does what?
    • Assumes varied complex secondary structures:
    • 'Hairpins'