History Final Exam
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Nixon Presidency: Turbulent Times
What marked the divisions and conflict in America in 1966-1973?
What were the major issues?
- Urban Riots
- College protests, political activism, radicalism
- End Vietnam War, ROTC, and Military Recruiters
- students want ethnic and Women's Studies Programs
Radical Student Organizations "The New Left"
SDS (Students for Democratic Society) offshoot of that was Weathermen, Weatherman Underground
What Big Event showed America how divided it was?
Shootings at Kent State, May 4 1970
What event was surprisingly peaceful despite the millions who came to it?
- Woodstock Aug 15-17
- it impacted the music, styles and sexual behavior of the sixties
The Women's Movement: 3 major breakthroughs/events and name of the movements
- NOW, 1966
- ERA title IX
- Roe v. Wade: gave women a "constitutional right to privacy" and invalidated all laws prohibiting abortion during the first trimester
What were some ideas and elements of the counterculture?
- Reject middle class norms:
- attitudes on Sex, drugs, lifestyles, materialism
Latino Activism: leaders and groups
- Cesar Chavez: Latino Farmer launched a strike against growers to demand increased wages and benefits
- Brown Berets
- La Unida Raza- wanted an autonomous Mexican-American state within a state
- AIM (American Indian Movement)
- NCAI (National Congress of American Indians
- Wounded Knee South Dakota 1973
Gay and Lesbian Activism
- Stonewall Riot June 27, 1969
- police raided gay bar arresting homosexuals
- homosexuals reacted with violence
Earth Day April 22 1970
Election of 1968: Nixon's themes
- Law and Order; Peace with Honor
- Nixon wins with 43.4% popular vote
Nixon's Domestic Policies:
not a true conservative: "big government republican"
New Agencies and Laws under Nixon:
- Wage and price controls:
- EPA 1970 and OSHA 1972
Foreign Policy under Nixon: Vietnamization
- U.S. to gradually withdraw and turn fighting over to South Vietnamese
- 1873 Ceasefire Agreement and full American Withdrawal
- South Vietnam falls to communists 1975
Nixon's New Approach for American Global strategy:
- Stabilize relations between superpowers
- Detente: easing tensions between us and russia
- Multipolarism: Nixon rejected the idea that the US and Soviet were the only two great powers of the World: Nixon sought a healthy balance of power with the countries of Japan, China, Western Europe
Nixon's policy towards China:
- opening diplomatic relations with China: recognized China as a major world power
- Nixon visits China in Feb of 1972
Nixon's Policies toward USSR:
- reduced tensions
- nixon visits in May 1972
- Arms limitations treaty is made: froze nuclear weapons of both sides, US and USSR at present levels
1972 Election, Who was involved? Who won? By How Much?
- Nixon vs Dem. George McGovern
- result: Nixon Landslide
- 61% vs 38% popular vote
- 520-17 electoral college votes
What led to Nixon's downfall?
Watergate Scandal: break in at dem party hq June 17 1972: spy on dems, learn their ideas, stay ahead in the election
Which two reporters helped keep the watergate scandal alive? What is their secret source of information known as?
- Bernstein and Woodward
- they brought allegations that Nixon was involved in a cover up by the white House
- Deep Throat
What was the outcome of the trial? what was the "smoking gun" that caused Nixon to resign on August 8, 1974?
- Nixon denies involvement in coverup
- John Dean- ex-White House Counsel says he is involved in a coverup
- investigation reveals white house system for taping conversations
- Smoking Gun: Supreme Court orders release of 64 tapes and tapes reveal Nixon's involvement in coverup
What is Nixon Charged with?
- Obstruction of justice by a conspiracy to block criminal investigation
- Threats to Democratic Process by wiretapping Dem part HQ
- Political "dirty tricks" squad
- Ugly stuff: white house enemies list, VP Agnew resigns in disgrace
Name of VP Nixon appointed?
What else did white house tapes reveal about Nixon
he was a potty mouth president
What was the legacy of the Watergate scandal?
Public Distrust of Government
Economic problems in Ford Presidency after 1973
- OPEC increases oil prices 400% 1973-1975
- Sudden Gas shortage and surge in gas prices 57% and Price inflation
- US manufacturing declines
- Foreign competition rises
- Rising inflation and slow economy = stagflation
Election of 1976: who was involved? Who won?
- Gerald Ford vs Jimmy Carter
- Carter Wins
Views of Carter's presidency : 1977-1981
What were his foreign policy intiatives?
- Treaty: Israel and Egypt 1978
- Conflict with USSR in Afghanistan 1980
What continuing economic problems did Carter have to deal with?
- High Inflation 13%
- High Interest Rates 20%
- Rising Unemployment: 7.4%
What was the foreign policy disaster that occurred under Carter's leadership?
- Hostages taken in Iran
- 53 hostages detained and carter's efforts to release them failed
- Crisis lasts 444 days
Election of 1980: Who was involved? Who Won? By how much?
- Reagan V. Carter
- Major victory for Reagan!
- 51-41% popular vote and 44 out of 50 states!
- Republican Majority in the senate
How did Reagan bring conservatism into the mainstream?
- 1980 Reagan's promises
- Restore Nation's prestige, strengthen defense
- Reduce Federal Government, Cut regulation
- Fix economy and cut taxes
- Hollywood actor
- California governor 1966-1970
What were Reagan's political beliefs about the role of government?
Government is the problem
what was Reagan's foreign policy?
- strengthen the US military and increase defense budget
- SDI (Star Wars) 1983
- End to Detente
What was the SDI and what was Detente?
Reagan Doctrine: Interventions and confrontations with
- Oppose communist expansion
- Grenada, El Salvador, Nicaraugua, Libya
Who coined the term "Evil Empire" to describe Soviet Union?
Reagan's Domestic Policies:
- Deregulation, privatization
- cut/ eliminate wasteful programs
Reagan's Economic Policies aka "Reaganomics"
- supply side economics
- investors and employers drive economic growth
- Tax cut= prosperity and a balanced federal budget
- trickle down approach: investor's money creates more jobs and wages
What were some of Reagan's Legislative Successes?
- tax cuts
- defense build-up
- spending cuts in social programs and regulatory agencies
Was Reagan successful at first?
- No, there was a continuing recession from 1981-1983
- approval rating went down to 35% 1983
Reagan's positive turnaround:
Economy grows, unemployment drop, stock market rises
1984 Election: who was involved? Who won? By how much?
- Reagan v.s. Mondale
- Reagan blows Mondale out of the water
- 59%-41% elec college votes
- 525-13 elec. college votes!!
- 93 Months of growth
- unemployment from 11%-6%
- inflation from 13%-4 or 5%
- interest rates from 20%-6%
What were the key factors which gave Reagan so much success creating economic prosperity and caused him to become so popular?
- stable oil prices
- lower interest rates by federal reserve bank
- Cold war victory 1989-1991 and Soviet Union disintegrates in 1990-1991
- Indifference to poverty or civil rights issues
- Tax cuts favored the wealthy
- rich got richer and poor got poorer
- Reagan economic boom only lasted from 1983-1990 and after that:
- federal debt tripled 1980-1990
Impact of Reagan Budgets on the federal debt:
1985: 1.8 trillion-3.2 trillion
Anti-Reagan views on foreign policy:
- No great cold war victory: USSR was falling already
- Defense buildup and tax cuts caused budget deficits
third view of reagan program
more continuity than revolution
- reagan remains a conservative icon
- Conservatism becomes mainstream: strong defense, low taxes, limited government
Election of 1988: Who was involved, who won, how much?
- George H. W. Bush v.s. Governor Dukakis
- Bush wins
- 53.7% -45.65% elct. college votes
- 426- 111 elct. college votes
- serves a one-term presidency
What promise did H.W. Bush make that he was unable to keep and received a lot of criticism because of it?
Bush promised to follow reagan's policies of "No new taxes"
Bush's focus on Foreign Policy:
Dec 1989 Operation, Just cause, Panama
What huge event occurred in 1989?
Fall of communism in eastern Europe
What were Gorbachev's reforms in the USSR?
and what is the result?
- more freedom of expression
- free market reforms in economy
- communist governments are overthrown
- Soviet Union disintegrates on Dec 25, 1991
Persian Gulf War: Iraq invades Kuwait
Deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait:
- August 2, 1990
- Operation Desert Shield: UN approves use of force against Iraq and Intl. coalition is formed
- December 15, 1991
- Congress approves military action Jan 12, 1991 known as Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm Jan 16 1991
- 6 weeks of air attacks were very effective
- High-tech weapons=low casualties and quick victory for US
- Kuwait is liberated; Saddam stays in power
- Bush's popularity soars to 91%
What domestic issues hurt Bush as he prepared for the new election?
- Recession: 1990-1991
- Rising unemployment: 7.8% 1991
- Growing Federal Deficit: $294 bil in 1992
What violent event showed how things were out of control under George H. W. Bush's presidency?
- LA violence
- 54 killed
- April 29- May 1 1992
The Election of 1992 who was involved, who won, by how much?
- George Bush
- Ross Perot
- Bill Clinton
- Clinton won with 370 elct. college votes 43% of popular vote
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