Micro Chapter 14

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  1. Be able to describe the different kinds of symbiosis and what they result in.
    • Mutualism- both members benefit
    • Commensalism- one benefits, other is unharmed. 
    • Parasitism- one benefits, other is harmed.
  2. Be able to explain the results of contamination, infection and disease.
    • Contamination- coming into contact with disease causing organism; sometimes results in infection
    • Infection- organism is successfully living and reproducing in the host; sometimes may result in disease. 
    • Disease- a change in the hosts health as a result of infection.
  3. Compare and contrast pathogenicity and virulence.
    • Pathogenicity- the ability of an organism to cause disease. 
    • Virulence- the relative ability of a pathogen to infect a host and cause disease.
  4. Extracellular Enzyme
    can help break down structural molecules, hide them and provide protection, inhibit isolation.
  5. Toxins-
    harm or trigger the host's immune system in such a way to cause harm.
  6. Antiphagocytic factors
     keep them from being phagocytized.
  7. four virulence factors
    • Biofilms
    • Antiphagocytic factors 
    • Toxins 
    • Extracellular Enzymes
  8. Normal microbiota
    is always part of the population of organisms found on the inner and outer surfaces of the body and is commensal or mutalistic.
  9. Transient flora
    are NOT always part of the population and can be parasitic if the normal microbiota is removed or the hosts immune system is compromised.
  10. What causes an organism to become transient?
    Their environment undergoes a change. Immune suppression. Introduced to a new location that it is not normally found.
  11. Explain how we acquire normal flora.
    Acquired at birth when the newborn passes through the birth canal. Baby then picks up normal flora from everything person and surface if comes in contact with.
  12. What are the major sites of entry and exit?
    Skin, Mucous membranes, placenta, parenteral routes.
  13. Know and be able to compare and contrast the different ways kinds of diseases are classified (infectious, noninfectious, by idiopathy, communicable and noncommunicable).
    • Infectious- can be transmitted to others
    • noninfectious- cannot be transmitted to others
    • Idiopathy- spontaneous disease; unknown cause. 
    • Communicable- diseases that are transmitted either directly or directly from an 
    • infected host
    • Noncommunicable- diseases that develop outside the host or from normal 
    • microbiota and are not passed from one host to another.
  14. What is etiology?
    The study of the causes of disease.
  15. What is the germ theory and how is it related to Koch’s postulates?
    • Germ theory- diseases are caused by infections by microscopic organism. 
    • Koch developed Kock's postulates to figure out who did what in the germ theory.
  16. Know examples of extracellular enzymes and how they work
    • Hyaluronidase and Collagenase- break down structural molecules allowing them to invade deeper tissues. 
    • Coagulase- catalyzes the formation of clots which provides protection and hiding places
    • Kinases- aid invasion by digesting blood clots that would normally isolate them in 
    • the host.
  17. Exotoxins-
    toxins that are secreted and they primarily destroy host cells or interfere with host metabolism.
  18. Endotoxins-
    toxins that remain in the organism. usually only effect the host when they are released when the organism is destroyed.
  19. Cytotoxins-
     cells in general
  20. Neurotoxins-
    nerve cells
  21. Enterotoxins
    gastrointestinal tract
  22. What is the difference between a sign, a syndrome and a symptom?
    • Sign- something that can be measured such as fever or rash
    • Syndrome- name for the signs and symptoms that present or are seen with a particular disease or condition. 
    • Symptom- how you feel such as pain or dizziness.
  23. Be able to explain the difference in the 3 different types of reservoir.
    • Animal, Human, Nonliving
  24. What is a fomite?
    inanimate object
  25. How are diseases transmitted?
    • Contact- direct contact with portal of exit, indirect contact, droplet transmission
    • Vehicle- air, water, food
    • Vector- animals. Biological vector- transfer and act as a host. Mechanical- only carry.
  26. How do you know someone is a “carrier”?
    Symptoms, not always
  27. Understand what is happening in each of the five stages of a disease and how you would recognize them.
    • Incubation period- ends with appearance of signs and symptoms
    • Prodromal period- signs and symptoms just starting and are very mild
    • Illness- host feels the worst, immune system isn't "cranked up" yet.
    • Decline- host is conquering the pathogen, signs and symptoms decline
    • Convalescence- repairing damage and restoring to normal state. 
  28. Be able to discuss the 3 types of epidemiology studies, what they are used for and when you would use them.
    • Descriptive- collection of data about a disease. Ex. tracing the source of the bubonic plague in London in 1854
    • Analytical- looks at descriptions of disease to determine probable cause, mode of transmission, possibly prevention. Done after outbreak as occurred. 
    • Experimental- coming up with a hypthoesis and testing it.
  29.  3 factors influencing nosocomial infections
    • Increased exposure to pathogens
    • Potential hosts with weakened immune system
    • Ease of transmission provided by the health care environment.
  30.  3 Universal Precautions instituted by the CDC.
    • Sharp containers
    • Wearing gloves and gowns
    • Washing hands
  31. Who would you report the occurrence of a contagious disease to?
    Local disease control organization
  32. What is the difference in endemic, epidemic, sporadic and pandemic?
    • Endemic- occurrence is almost always within the population
    • Sporadic- only shows up occasionally
    • Epidemic- has made an increase in occurrence.
    • Pandemic- occurs simultaneously in more than one continent.
  33. What is the most effective way to reduce nosocomial infections?
  34. Know the 3 roles of Public Health Agencies.
    Work to limit transmission of disease, conduct inspections, run tests for disease on food and water sources.
  35. 31. What does WHO stand for and what does it do?
    World Health Organization- inform and educate the public and various organizations.
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Micro Chapter 14
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