Foundations - Models

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Foundations - Models
2013-12-10 00:18:33

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  1. What is the most widely used occupational-based model worldwide?
  2. The 5 alternatives for therapeutic intervention (establish or restore, alter, adapt, prevent, create) are a part of which model?
  3. Which model uses the term tasks?
  4. What are tasks?
    Objective sets of behaviors necessary to accomplish a goal.
  5. Which model states, "The person is a dynamic, motivated, and ever-developing being, constantly interacting with the environment."
  6. Winnie Dunn, Catana Brown & Ann McGuigan published which model in 1994?
  7. Which model was developed at TWU?
  8. Which model states that the Person is made up of a series of intrinsic factors that make up one's skills and abilities (neurobehavioral, physiological, cognitive, psychological and spiritual)?
  9. Which model identifies 3 subsystems (volition, habituation, and performance capacity)?
  10. The concepts of occupational performance, occupational, and occupational skill are described in which model?
  11. What is theory?
    A plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena.
  12. What are assumptions?
    Ideas that we believe to be true. There is no way to obtain definitive proof. 

    Thoughts, ideas, beliefs, values, and habits that are taken for granted as true or correct. Assumptions often form the foundation for a viewpoint or action.
  13. What are propositions?
    Formal statements about causes and effects or the nature of relationships among features of the world. It is possible to test them and therefore to prove them false.
  14. What is a broad theory?
    Global theory that serves as an "overarching model that helps to explain a large set of findings or observations." Provides a way of organizing or systematizing the elements of the phenomena being observed and helps us focus our observations and decide what cues to attend to.
  15. What is a discrete theory?
    Describe specific causal relationships. Identify the specific causes of a problem or may propose how an aspect of intervention leads to therapeutic change. Identify ways in which a phenomenon can be changed or controlled.
  16. What is a paradigm?
    A set of broad assumptions and perspectives that unifies a field and defines its purpose and nature. These assumptions and perspectives are believed to underlie a discipline's science and practice at a given time.
  17. What is CO-OP?
    Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    A client-centered, metacognitive, performance-based intervention that combines motor learning principles with other theories that emphasize the role of cognitive processes and goal setting in developing movement skills. Its purpose is to teach children with disabilities to use strategies that support skill acquisition through a process of guided discovery.
  18. What is Occupational Therapy Task-Oriented Approach?
    Makes the assumption that movement is organized around a goal and influenced by the environment. A task-oriented approach to consider task performance in relation to a person's valued life roles.
  19. Why were the ecological models developed?
    They were developed so that along with consideration for the person and occupation, occupational therapy practice includes assessments and interventions that focus on the environment.
  20. What were the ecological models built upon?
    Social science theory, earlier occupational therapy models, and the disability movement
  21. What is press?
    The demands of the environment (curb cuts)
  22. What is person?
    The holistic view of the person acknowledges the mind, body and spirit. Variables include values and interests, skills and abilities, and life experiences.
  23. What is environment?
    Where occupational performance takes place and consists of physical, cultural, and social components.
  24. What is occupation or task?
    Occupation (PEO and PEOP) - Occupations exist when the person and context factors come together to give meaning to tasks. Self-directed tasks that a person engages in over the life course. 

    Task (EHP) - Facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration. Defined as objective representations of all possible activities available in the universe. Purposeful activities. 
  25. In which model are activities the basic units of tasks?
  26. What are actions and which model uses it?
    Actions are observable behaviors. Found in PEOP.
  27. Chopping vegetables - task, action, or occupation?
    Activity (observable behavior) - PEOP
  28. Cooking dinner for the family - task, action, or occupation?
    Occupation - PEOP
  29. What is occupational performance?
    The outcome that is associated with the confluence of the person, environment and occupation factors. Depends on the "goodness of fit" of the variables.
  30. Which model uses a Venn diagram?
  31. In PEOP, which variables do NOT touch/overlap?
    Person and environment touch but do not overlap.
  32. In which model is the person embedded inside the contexts with tasks floating all around?
  33. Which model has five intervention strategies? What are they?
    • EHP
    • 1. Establish/restore
    • 2. Adapt/modify
    • 3. Alter
    • 4. Prevent
    • 5. Create
  34. What is EHP's establish/restore intervention?
    Targets the person and are aimed at developing and improving skills and abilities so that the person can perform tasks (occupations) in context. Ex) Increasing ROM to better do an ADL
  35. What is EHP's adapt/modify intervention?
    Change the environment or task to increase the individual's performance range. Ex) Using assistive devices [adapted car, built-up spoon] that change the typical environment
  36. What is EHP's alter intervention?
    DO NOT change the person, task or environment but are designed to make a better fit. Take advantage of what is already naturally occurring. Ex) Moving from a two-story to a one-story house; helping a client find an organization to join that matches their values; finding a job that fits the person's interests
  37. What is EHP's prevent intervention?
    Implemented to change the course of events when a negative outcome is predicted. Occur before the problem develops. Ex) Teaching at-risk parents appropriate play; cushion in wheelchair to prevent ulcers
  38. What is EHP's create intervention?
    DO NOT assume that a problem has occurred or will occur but are designed to promote performance in context. Ex) Practicing for an interview
  39. Who published PEO?
    Law, Cooper, Strong, et al., 1996
  40. Who published PEOP?
    Christensen & Baum, 1997
  41. What three concepts does MOHO address?
    • The motivation for occupation
    • The routine pattern of occupations
    • The nature of skilled performance
    • The influence of environment on occupation
  42. What is volition? Which model?
    (MOHO) The process by which people are motivated toward and choose what activities they do. Asserts that all humans have a desire to engage in occupations that is shaped by previous experiences. Influenced by personal causation, values and interests.
  43. What is personal causation? What model?
    (MOHO) Thoughts and feelings about one's abilities and effectiveness as he or she does everyday activities. Include recognizing one's strengths and weaknesses, feeling confident or anxious when faced with an occupation, and reflecting on how well one did after doing something.
  44. What is MOHO's values?
    A part of volition. Beliefs and commitments about what is good, right and important to do. Include thoughts and feelings about activities that are worth doing, beliefs about the proper way to complete those activities, and the meanings that are ascribed to the things one does.
  45. What is MOHO's interests?
    Develop through the experience of pleasure and satisfaction derived from occupational engagement.
  46. What is habituation? What model?
    A process whereby people organize their actions into patterns and routines. Includes habits and roles. (MOHO)
  47. According to MOHO, what are habits?
    Learned ways of doing things that unfold automatically.
  48. According to MOHO, what are roles?
    Provide a cultural script for one's identity and provide a set of responsibilities and obligations that are associated with that identity. (Ex. Students, workers, parents)
  49. What is performance capacity? What model?
    A person's underlying mental and physical abilities and how those abilities are used and experienced in occupational performance (musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiopulmonary, etc.) MOHO
  50. In MOHO, what is the environment?
    The particular physical, social, cultural, economic and political features within a person's context that influence the motivation, organization, and performance of occupations.
  51. _________ refers to clients' doing, thinking, and feeling under certain environmental conditions in the midst of therapy.
    Occupational engagement (MOHO)
  52. What are the six steps of MOHO's therapeutic reasoning?
    • Generating questions about the client
    • Gathering info on and with the client
    • Using the info to create a theory-based explanation of the client's situation
    • Generating therapy goals and strategies
    • Implementing and monitoring therapy
    • Determining outcomes of therapy
  53. Which model focuses on a client's occupation?
  54. Who created OA?
    Schultz & Schkade, 1992, TWU
  55. What is OA?
    Describes the integration of occupation and adaptation. Driven by the assumption that if the clients become more adaptive, they will become more functional. An interaction of internal (personal) and external (environment) factors. Stresses the push for mastery.
  56. What are the three adaptive response subprocesses of OA?
    • Adaptive response generation
    • Adaptive response evaluation
    • Adaptive response integration
  57. What are the three adaptive response behaviors of OA?
    • Hyperstable - staring at the computer, waiting for the answer to come
    • Hypermobile - moving from one solution to another, with no results
    • Blended - allows for great opportunity to have a positive outcome
  58. T/F The goal of OA is to help the client adapt.
    FALSE! The goal of OA is to help the client become more adaptive, not to help them adapt.
  59. What are the three ecological models?
    • EHP
    • PEOP
    • PEO
  60. What is the temporal environment?
    Made up of time-oriented factors. Person (developmental and life stage); and the task (when it takes place, how often, and how long)
  61. What is the cultural environment?
    Shared experiences that determine values, beliefs & customs. Close interpersonal relationships, family and friends; social groups such as work groups or social groups; the social environment is made up of large political and economic systems.
  62. Which model facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration?
    EHP...hence the use of "task" rather than occupation.
  63. T/F The task is the basic unit of an activity.
    FALSE - The activity is the basic unit of a task. A "task" is a set of purposeful activities.
  64. T/F According to PEO, the person is more likely to change than the environment.
    FALSE - The environment is more amenable to change than the person.
  65. How are the subjective measures of PEO measured?
  66. T/F Use of a PEO approach may require ongoing monitoring of interventions as opposed to a time-limited case approach.
  67. Which model is considered a lens from which persons view their world?
  68. What is the main idea of EHP?
    The interrelationship of a person and context determines which tasks fall within the person's performance range. You will not be able to do all tasks, only if they fall in your range.
  69. What is a key variable in assessment and intervention planning for EHP?

    Contextual features such as the physical qualities of an environment, the cultural background of the person, or the effect of friendships on performance are an important component of EHP.
  70. Which model states that persons both affect and are affected by their environment?
  71. What does PEOP stand for?
    Person Environment Occupation Performance
  72. "People are naturally motivated to explore their world and demonstrate mastery within it" - This is a major belief of which model?
  73. In PEOP, the person is made up of a series of intrinsic factors that make up one's skills and abilities. These factors include:
    • Neurobehavioral
    • Physiological
    • Cognitive
    • Psychological
    • Spiritual
  74. What is PEOP's hierarchy of occupation-related behaviors and supportive abilities?
    • Roles
    • Occupations
    • Tasks
    • Actions
    • Abilities