Chapter 18 Cell bio

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instanthuman
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251169
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Chapter 18 Cell bio
Updated:
2013-12-05 22:05:22
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cellular biology
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Chapter 18: mitosis
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  1. Binary fission
    Prokaryotic
  2. 3 steps of binary fission
    Replicate DNA, replicate rest of cell contents, divide into two
  3. Why Eukaryotic cells divide
    Reproduction, growth/development, tissue repair and renewal
  4. Main purpose of mitosis
    To make more 2n cells for growth and repair
  5. Most fully differentiated cells are in this phase
    G0
  6. Cohesins
    Proteins that associate sister chromatids tightly together, during S phase
  7. Diploid cell
    2 of each kind of chromosomes for a total of 46 human
  8. Haploid cell
    1 of each kind of chromosome for a total of 23 human
  9. G1 Checkpoints
    Damaged DNA, unfavorable extracellular environment “Start”
  10. S Checkpoint
    Damaged or incompletely replicated DNA
  11. G2 checkpoint
    Damaged or incompletely replicated DNA
  12. M checkpoint
    Chromosomes improperly attached to the mitotic spindle
  13. MPF
    Maturation Promoting Factor
  14. MPF made of
    Cdks and cyclins
  15. Cdk
    Cyclin dependent kinase
  16. Cyclin
    • Allosteric regulator for Cdks
    • Cyclin cycles
    • Cdk is always there but not always on
  17. MPF activations phosphorylates a transcription factor that turns on a gene to
    Degrade cyclin
  18. Cyclin and activating phosphorylation
    make the cyclin-cdk complex active
  19. active cyclin-cdk complex will phosphorylate
    inactive cyclin-cdk
  20. Active M-cdk (active MPF)
    Triggers mitosis
  21. Every stage requires
    A different, active cdk complex
  22. If an event in the cell cycle is delayed
    The cell cycle stalls
  23. An event triggered by cdks is ended by
    Degrading the cyclin
  24. Cyclin D
    Necessary for transcription and translation
  25. ORC
    Origin replication complex; bound to origin of replication
  26. S-cdk
    Triggers s-phase by phosphorylating Cdc-6, revealing the ORC and beginning replication.
  27. P53
    Damaged DNA activatges protein kinases that phosphorylate (activate) this; transcription factor for p21
  28. P21
    Gene that codes for Cdk inhibitor protein (also called p21); inhibits G1/S-Cdk and S-Cdk
  29. Wee 1
    Kinase that phosphorylates a phosphatase that removes the inhibitory phosphate
  30. MPF
    Self-activating
  31. Stages of mitosis
    Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, then cytokinesis
  32. Interphase
    Cell is attached, one centrosome, decondensed DNA, replicate centrosome (G2)
  33. Prophase
    Condense chromosome, spindle fiber forms
  34. M-cdk triggers condensation of chromosomes
  35. Prometaphase
    Nucleus disassembles, centrosomes migrating to opposite ends of the cells
  36. Metaphase
    Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. Spindle does this
  37. Anaphase
    Spindle fibers shorten and separate sister chromatids
  38. Telophase
    Daughter chromosomes reach poles of the spindle, nucleus reforms
  39. Cytokinesis
    Cytoplasm divides with a ring of actin
  40. Non-kinetochore microtubules
    Contact microtubules from the other pole of the dividing cell; also called interpolar microtubules
  41. Kinetochore microtubules
    Microtubules that attach to the chromosomes
  42. Contractile ring
    Actin and myosin ring that divides the cytoplasm
  43. Aster fibers
    Reach out to cell cortex
  44. Centrosome cycle
    Dynamic instability of MT increases in M phase, filaments shoot out from each MTOC randomly, some meet and stabilize each other establishing the spindle poles
  45. Metaphase plate
    Chromosomes line up here due to the tension applied to centromeres by kinetochore MTs
  46. Anaphase promoting Complex
    Securin inhibits separase (which cleaves cohesins)
  47. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death
  48. Necrosis
    Unregulated cell death
  49. Caspases
    Regulate apoptosis; amplifying cascade
  50. Procaspase
    Inactivated caspases; cell is alive
  51. Bc12
    Regulates caspase
  52. Mitochondria are important
    Cytochrome C activates adaptor protein
  53. AKT signaling inhibits
    Apoptosis
  54. Mitogens signal
    Cell division; MAPK and PDGF signaling
  55. Growth factors
    FGF and EGF signaling

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