JX105

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Anonymous
ID:
251211
Filename:
JX105
Updated:
2013-12-07 18:37:17
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JX105
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JX105
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  1. What is a METAR?
    • An hourly scheduled observation of:
    • Type
    • Station
    • Time
    • Wind
    • Visibility
    • RVR
    • Weather
    • Sky condition
    • Temp/dew point
    • Altimeter setting
    • Remarks
  2. Winds:
    • Reported in true degrees
    • 25015KT: 250° at 15 knots
    • 25015G30KT: 250° at 15 knots gusting 30
    • 0000KT: calm winds
    • 25015G30KT 210V290: wind varying between 210° and 290°
    • VRB03KT: wind variable at or less than 6 knots
  3. Visibility:
    • Greatest visibility observed over 50% of the horizon
    • If less than 7SM, then weather/obstruction to vision will be reported
    • M1/4SM: less than 1/4 SM visibility
    • VIS 1V2: visibility variable between 1 and 2 miles; in remarks section
  4. Runway visual range (RVR):
    • Reported when visibility ≤ 1SM or RVR≤6000
    • ≤ 3000': reported in 300' increments
    • ≥ 3000': reported in 500: increments
    • R32L/1000FT: runway 32L is 1000'
    • M0600FT: RVR ≤ 600'
    • P6000FT: RVR ≥ 6000'
    • R06R2000V4000FT: RVR 6R, variable between 2000' and 4000' between the two thresholds
  5. Weather:
    • Weather in the body is within 5 miles from station
    • VC indicates weather 5-10 miles from the station
    • Weather occurring beyond 10 miles is in the remarks section
  6. Weather: Description
    BC, BL, DR, FZ, MI, PR, SH, TS
    • BC: Patches
    • BL: Blowing
    • DR: Low drifting
    • FZ: Freezing
    • MI: Shallow
    • PR: Partial
    • SH: Shower(s)
    • TS: Thunderstorm
  7. Weather: Precipitation
    DZ, GR, GS, IC, PL, RA, SG, SN, UP
    • DZ: drizzle
    • GR: hail, diam. ≥ .25"
    • GS: small hail < .25"
    • IC: Ice crystals
    • PL: Ice pellets
    • RA: rain
    • SG: snow grains
    • SN: snow
    • UP: unknown precipitation (automated only)
  8. Weather: Obstruction
    BR, DU, FG, FU, HZ, PY, SA, VA
    • BR: mist, vis ≥ 5/8SM
    • DU: widespread dust
    • FG: fog, vis ≥ 5/8SM
    • FU: smoke
    • HZ: haze
    • PY: spray
    • SA: sand
    • VA: volcanic ash
  9. Weather: other
    DS, FC, PO, SQ, SS
    • DS: dust storm
    • FC: funnel cloud(s)
    • PO: well developed dust/sand storm
    • SQ: squalls
    • SS: sandstorm
  10. Sky condition:
    • Layers reported in ascending order up to the first overcast
    • Reported in AGL
    • To constitute a ceiling, coverage must be greater than 4/8 (broken)
  11. Sky condition:
    SKC or CLR, FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC, VV
    • SKC or CLR: sky clear below 12,000'
    • FEW: Few, 0-2/8; ≤ 1/8 reported as FEW
    • SCT: scattered, 3/8-4/8
    • BKN: broken, 5/8-7/8, constitutes ceiling
    • OVC: overcast, 8/8, constitutes ceiling
    • VV: vertical visibility; VV002 = 200'
  12. Temperature and dew point:
    • 19/18: temp- 19C; dew point 18C
    • 01/M01: Temp- 1C; dew point -1C
  13. Altimeter:
    A2992: 29.92 inHg
  14. Remarks:
    RMK
    • Manual or automated
    • Plain language
    • additive data and maintenance
    • SLP: sea level pressure; place a 10 or 9 before first digit, and decimal before last digit. 
    • Use 9 only if 3 digit value is >500
    • SLP034: sea level pressure 1003.4 millibars
  15. Runway condition:
    WR, SLR, LSR, PSR, IR, RCRNR
    • WR: wet runway
    • SLR: slush on runway
    • LSR: loose snow on runway
    • PSR: packed snow on runway
    • IR: ice on runway
    • RCRNR: not reported
  16. Runway condition reading:
    • 2 digit reading
    • "//" indicates runway is wet, slush-covered, or reading is unavailable
    • 02-05: NIL; Increase landing roll +100%
    • 06-12: POOR; increase landing roll 99-46%
    • 13-18: FAIR; increase landing roll 45-16%
    • 19-25: GOOD; Increase landing roll 15-9%
  17. How long are TAF forecast good for?
    Typically 24hrs but can be up to 30 hrs
  18. TAF: date and time
    • 6 digit
    • 260909: 26th day; 0900Z to 0900Z the next day
    • Civil stations 091720Z 091818: transmission time 9th day, at 1720; forecast 9th day from 1800Z to 1800Z the next day
  19. TAF: wind
    • measured in degrees true
    • If expected to vary by 60° or more, it will be noted at WND 270V350 in the remarks section
  20. TAF: visibility
    • If the visibility is ≤ 6SM, the weather or obstruction to vision will be included
    • 9999: indicates greater than 7SM
  21. TAF: icing
    • comes after sky coverage
    • 6 digit code
    • First digit is always 6
    • Second digit is type- most severe reported
    • Next 3 digits indicate base of icing band
    • Last digit is the thickness of icing in 1000s'
  22. TAF: turbulence
    • 6 digit code
    • First digit is always 5
    • Second digit is intensity
    • Next 3 digits is base of turbulence
    • Last is thickness of turbulence layer
  23. TAF: altimeter
    • Lowest expected altimeter setting in inHg
    • QNH: sea level pressure
    • INS: unit of measure, inches
    • QNE: standard datum plane, 29.92 inHg
    • QFE: station pressure, not corrected to sea level
    • Civil stations do not forecast altimeter setting
  24. TAF: change groups
    FM, BECMG, TEMPO
    • FM: from, change is expected to be quick
    • BECMG: change is expected to occur over longer period of time
    • TEMPO: temporary, non-permanent change
  25. What are the differences between civilian and military TAFs?
    • Civil stations will use statute miles instead of meters
    • Civil stations include date time group of transmission prior to the forecast period
    • When military stations amend, correct, or have a routine delayed forecast, a remark will be appended to the last line of the forecast with the appropriate time
    • Civil stations may include probability of precipitation occurence

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