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  1. the head of the rib articulates with what
    one or two thoracic bodies
  2. the tubercle of the rib articulates with what bony structure
    the transverse process of the thoracic verebrae
  3. in the rib cage what pair of ribs are most vertical of them all
    first ribs and they are short and sharply curved
  4. where is the ribcage the widest
    at the lateral margins of the eighth or ninth ribs
  5. the costochondral junction has what type of movement
    synarthrodial (immovable)
  6. the sternoclavicular joint has what type of movement
    diathrodial (or freely moveable)
  7. the sternocostal joint of the first rib has what type of movement
    synarthrodial (immovable)
  8. the sternocostal joints of ribs 2-7 has what type of movement
    diarthrodial (freely moveable)
  9. the interchondral joints of ribs 8-10 has what type of movement
  10. positioning of considerations or obliquity for the sternum depend on what
    the size of the patients thoracic cavity
  11. a patient with a thin chest requires more _____ than a patient with deep broad chest in order to cast the sternum away from the t-spine
  12. why is it difficult to obtain optimal density and contrast on sternum images
    • b.c the sternum is made primarily of spongy bone with a thin layer of hard compact bone surrounding it
    • this combine with the close proximity of the easy to penetrate mediastinum/heart make exposure factors a challenge
  13. what kvp is reccommended to achieve an acceptable contrast image
    70 kvp
  14. what postiion should a breathing technique (shallow breathing)
    why should patient breathe like this
    • rao sternum
    • shallow breaths during exposure because it blurs the lung markings overlying the sternum
  15. if you are using a breathing technique for an rao sternum what are the new technical factors
    low kv 65 low ma (20-50) and a long exposre of 3-4 seconds
  16. what is the minimum SID for an RAO sternum
  17. when taking upper ribs the patient should be ____ exposure should be taken on what breath and what kvp should we use
    • patient should be erect
    • breathing: take in deep breath and hold it
    • low kv 65-75
  18. when you have to take a lower rib radiograph how should we position our patient
    what is the breathing instructions
    wat is the new kvp
    • recumbent (laying down)
    • exposure on expiration (take in a deep breath blow it out and hold it)
    • medium (75-85)
  19. Situtation: a patient has come the xray department and is complaining of pain around the back left side of his ribs what 2 radiographs should you take
    • take an ap and LPO
    • objective: place the hurt rib closest to the IR (reduces foreshortening)
    • the ap will place the hurt rib closest to IR
  20. if the patient has trauma to the right anterior ribs
    • take a PA because the front side is closest to the IR and and LAO (the hurt side is now away from the image receptor and the LAO rotates the spinous process away from the left side
    • the PA will place hurt rib closest to IR
  21. how should mark the site of injury in some xray departments
    tape a small metalic BB or some other type of small radiopaque nipple marker over the site of injury

    this allows the radiologist to be aware of the location of the trauma of pathology indicated by the patient
  22. what are the different SID you have to adjust when doing a RAO sternum and a Lateral (R or L) sternum
    • RAO sternum is at 40 SID
    • Lateral Sternum is 72 SID
  23. what exam is done in addition to a rib series in some departments
    why are they asked for
    • chest xray
    • because a rib injury can cause puncturing or damage to the lungs
  24. what are the routine positions for sternum ribs and sc joints
    • sternum
    • RAO and lateral

    • ribs
    • pA or AP
    • obliques (anterior or posterior)

    • Sc joints
    • pa oblique
  25. List three exams that you would need a breathing technique for
    • ap scapula
    • transthoracic lateral
    • RAO sternum
  26. List all factors for an RAO sternum
    what breathing technique
    wheres the CR and IR
    • 10x12 lengthwise
    • 15-20 degree oblique (depends on pt thorax more obliqu for skinnier patient)
    • place top of IR about 1.5 in above jug notch and direct CR to mid sternum or middle of shoulder blade
    • collimate to about a 5 inch wide field size
    • breathing technique (shallow breathing)
  27. what structures are shown in an RAO
    sternum is visualized superimposed on the heart shadow
  28. List all factors for R or L lateral
    where is IR and CR
    Breathing instructions?
    Where are the arms in an erect and recumbent
    • 10x12 lengthwise with patient erect or recumbent
    • place top of IR about 1.5 above the jug notch
    • Erect: draw arms back
    • recumbent: arms over the head
    • SID 72in SID 40 (Trauma)
    • Exposure on inspiration
  29. List the factors for Posterior ribs AP projection
    what is the SID for erect and recumbent
    breathing instructions
    where is the CR
    • 14x17 length wise or crosswise
    • erect 72
    • recumbent 40
    • exposure on inspiration
    • cr perpendicular to IR centered 3-+4 in below jug notch above diaphragm
  30. what structures are best shown on AP ribs
    best visualize fractures and neoplastic processes of the posterior ribs 1-9 or 10
  31. List the factors for anterior ribs PA projection what is the SID for erect and recumbent breathing instructions where is the CR
    Injuries to ribs below the diaphragm are generally where?
    • 14x17 kengthwise or crosswise
    • erect 72
    • recumbent 40
    • exposure on inspiration
    • CR perpendicular to t7 (like a chest xray)
    • IR 1.5in above shoulders
    • to posterior ribs
  32. List the factors for anterior Oblique Positions (LAO & RAO)
    what is the SID for erect 
    breathing instructions
    where is the CR and IR
    • 14 x 17 (lengthwise or crosswise)
    • •Minimum 40" SID
    • •Exposure on inspiration
    • •45 degree oblique positions
    • •Rotate patient so affected side is away from IR.
    • •Above diaphragm: –CR perpendicular to IR midway between lateral margin of ribs and spine. –centered to 3 to 4 inches below jugular notch ( T7). – Top of the IR about
  33. what are the routines for RIBS
    • •Right anterior injury: –PA and LAO
    • •Left anterior injury: –PA and RAO
    • •Right posterior injury –AP and RPO
    • •Left posterior injury –AP and LPO
  34. An injury to the right side would require ___ or ____.
    An injury to the left side would require and ___ or an ____.
    • RPO or LAO
    • depends on which side that hurts

    • LPO or RAO
    • depends on where it hurts
  35. list the factors for an ap below the diaphragm
    where is bottom of IR
    • 10x12 or 14 x17 crosswise
    • erect 72 SID
    • recumbent 40 SID
    • exposure on expiration
    • below diaphragm:
    • bottom of IR should be at level of iliac crest
    • cr between xiphoid and lower rib cage
  36. list all the factors for an LPO or RPO
    top of IR?
    • 14x17 length or cross
    • 40 SID
    • exposure on inpiration (take in deep breath and hold it)
    • 45 degree oblique
    • rotate patient so affected side is closest to IR

    • CR perp to IR midway of spine ribs (lateral margin) 3-4in below jug notch
    • top ir 1.5 in above shoulders
Card Set:
2013-12-14 20:00:42

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