if life evolves on mars, based on the biochemistry of terrestrial life forms, on which element would is probably be based?
atoms are most stable when they possess no overall electrical charge
the atoms found in common table salt (NaCL) are held together by ___ bonds
the age of the earth is measured in ___ of years
which molecule is not an energy storage molecule?
the universe is approximately ____ years old
the earth is approximately ___ years old
the chemical identity of an atom is established by the number of ___ in its nucleus
the bonds that an atom will or can participate in is determined by
the number of electrons in an atoms outer most shell
approximately what percentage of the naturally occurring elements are used by living systems?
which molecule is considered a storage or depot lipid?
sucrose is an example of a
all proteins are polymers of
cellulose, starch and glycogen are all polymers of
cellulose, structural proteins and DNA are ALL polymers
the biochemical in the primordial soup were formed by which process?
cell membranes work because phospholipids have hydrophobic (water hating) AND hydrophilic (water loving) portions of the same molecule
who disproved the 19th century formulation of spontaneous generation?
the earliest living organisms probably used ___ as their hereditary biochemical
a cell with 24 chromosomes divides by mitosis. How many chromosomes are present in each of the daughter nuclei
diploid refers to ___ chromosomes of each type
the division of the cytoplasm is the same in plants and animal cells
during which phase of the cell cycle are chromosomes duplicated?
mitosis results in the production of 4 haploid nuclei
sister chromatids are attached to each other at the
which phase is not a formal stage of mitosis
during which phase does the nuclear envelope being to reform?
visible, organized chromosomes are a feature of a ___ nucleus
in human, red blood cells are replaced by
in terms of the cell cycle, neurons are generally locked in ?
a haploid possesses ____ chromosomes of each type
the cell wall material in the vesicles of the cell plate was packaged in a
which organelle is responsible for maternal inheritance
the cell wall is an extracellular structure/
individual genes have a physical address
if both parents exhibit a recessive trait, what is the chance that their offspring will exhibit the dominant phenotype?
in a dihybrid cross between two individuals both heterozygous for two traits carried on non-homologous chromosomes (AaBb x AaBb), what are the chances of having progeny that exhibit both dominant phenotype?
a 1/2/1 ratio in the F2 generation is a ___ ratio
crossing over occurs during
human sperm cells carry ___ chromosomes of each and every type
crossing over tends to ____ genetic diversity
after meiosis, each haploid gamete carries one allele for each inherited trait
a recessive phenotype is only expressed in the ___ condition
when is the phenotypic ratio of the F2 identical to genotypic ratio?
when the alleles are incompletely dominant
genes for different traits
oogenesis and spermatogenesis utilize
mendel concluded that genes were particulate units of inheritance
if the probability of event A happening is 80%, you can expect the event to occur four time out of?
bacteria divide by
bacterial diseases are caused by
rabies is a bacterial disease
in the urey/miller experiment, primordial life was created
most heterotrophic bacteria are involved in the process of decomposition
human eye color is under the control of ____ genes
the probability of event A happening is 50%. The probability of event B happening of 50%. What is probability of both events occurring together?
community is the ____ component of an ecosystem
human population size is generally regulated by
all of the above
all living organisms contribute to the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere.
which trophic level would have the smallest number of individuals?
second order (top) carnivores
ecosystems acquire energy through the process of
in a balance ecosystem, energy
is constantly recycled
flows from consumers to the producers
flows from the producers to the consumers
genetic information is stored in the structure of ?
DNA, RNA, protein
dna is a polymer of
carries any amino acid
carries information on how to make protein
DNA directed RNA polymerase would be directly involved in ?
transcription of m-RNA
DNA is a polymer is A, T, C and U containing nucleotides
disulfide bonds may be used to link two different protein chains together
the atomic ratio for most carbohydrates is 1 carbon/ 2 hydrogens/ 1 oxygen
all amino acids have the same general structure?
when scorpions respire, which gas is produced?
could respiration rates be studied by measuring the volume of O2 consumed/unit time?
respiration rate is measure using which units?
volume of CO2 produced/min/gm of organism
omnivorous dinosaurs, animals that eat both plants and animals, extracted the chemical energy in their food using
fats and carbohydrates are low-energy carbon molecules, t or f
nucleic acids have a ____ backbone
disaccharides are composed of ____ simple sugars
biochemistry is based in the chemistry of which element/
all organisms respire, t or f?
the earliest existence for life on earth is 4.5 billion years?
during mitosis, homologous chromosomes must pair
dominant alleles are always expressed
phenotype determines genotype
the genetic code has been shown to be a ___ code
____ bonds join the two strands of DNA together to form the double helix
when scorpions respire, which gas is being consumed?