PSYC 372 FINAL CHP 12

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edragon
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PSYC 372 FINAL CHP 12
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2013-12-07 19:09:55
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PSYC 372 FINAL
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PSYC 372 FINAL CHP 12 Groups
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  1. Cohesiveness
    The strength of the bonds among group members.
  2. Communication network
    The pattern of information flow through a group.
  3. Deindividuation
    The process of losing one's sense of personal identity, which makes it easier to behave in ways inconsistent with one's normal values.
  4. Dynamical system
    A system (e.g., a group) made up of many interacting elements (e.g., people) that changes and evolves over time.
  5. Group
    Minimally, groups are two or more individuals who influence each other. Collections of individuals become increasingly "grouplike," however, when their members are interdependent and share a common identity, and when they possess structure.
  6. Groupthink
    A style of group decision making characterized by a greater desire among members to get along and agree with one another than to generate and critically evaluate alternative viewpoints and positions.
  7. Group polarization
    Occurs when group discussion leads members to make decisions that are more extremely on the side of the issue that the group initially favored.
  8. Minority Influence
    Occurs when opinion minorities persuade others of their views.
  9. Role
    Expectation held by the group for how members in particular positions ought to behave.
  10. Social facilitation
    The process through which the presence of others increase the likelihood of dominant responses, leading to better performance on well-mastered tasks and worse performance on unmastered tasks.
  11. Status hierachy
    A ranking of group members by their power and influence over other members.
  12. Social loafing
    Reducing one's personal efforts when in a group.
  13. Transformational leadership
    Leadership that changes the motivations, outlooks, and behaviors of followers, enabling the group to reach its goals better.
  14. Transactive memory
    A group memory system made up of (1) the knowledge held by individual group members and (2) a communication network for sharing this knowledge among the members.
  15. Entiativity refers to the extent to which group members adhere to the group's norms.
    true or false
    False
  16. Group cohesiveness refers to the extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity.
    True or False
    False
  17. The hazing that many fraternity members endure in order to become a member of a fraternity tends to increase the individual's commitment to the group.
    True or False
    True
  18. The presence of other people increases our level of arousal, which usually results in impaired performance of simple tasks.

    True or False
    False
  19. Social loafing is more common in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic cultures.
    True or False
    True
  20. Cooperation cannot occur in situations where individuals face social dilemmas
    True or False
    False
  21. Conflicts can only occur when two groups have opposing or incompatible interests.
    True or False
    False
  22. Interactional justice concerns the extent to which persons who distribute rewards to group members also explain or justify their decisions.
    True or False
    True
  23. _____ refers to the extent to which a group is seen as a coherent entity.
    A. edindividuation
    B. entiativity
    C. social facilitation
    D. additivity
    E. procedural interactivity
    B. entiativity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. _____ refer to the rules within a particular group that indicate how group members should and should not behave.
    A.Reciprocities  
    B.Groupthink  
    C.Cohesive factors  
    D.Deindividuations
    E.Norms  
    E. Norms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Jason has been a member of a small student-lead club on campus for three years. He is now the vice-president of the club. He has been offered membership in a very prestigious campus organization, but accepting this membership would mean giving up his involvement in all other student organizations. Jason is finding it difficult to leave the smaller club and join the larger organization because _____.
    A. of his higher status in the smaller group and because of the smallness of the original group
    B.he has more friends in the larger group but wants to continue making friends with members of the smaller group
    C.he is concerned about the effects that membership in a prestigious organization may have on his self-esteem
    D. he identifies more strongly with the larger group
    E.the cost of entry to the larger group is greater than was the cost of entry to the smaller group
    A. of his higher status in the smaller group and because of the smallness of the original group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. One potential cost associated with membership in a group is that _____.
    A. the individual may gain status by being associated with a particular group
    B. the group may provide the individual with additional free time
    C. the group may adopt a position or policy with which an individual disagrees
    D. the individual may increase her or his self-knowledge as a result of group membership
    C. the group may adopt a position or policy with which an individual disagrees
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Alicia is just learning to play the piano and is expecting to give a recital in the near future. According to recent research on the effects of others, Alicia should probably _____.
    A.practice alone until she perfects her performance, then perform before a group
    B.practice alone about as much as she does when others are present
    C. avoid practicing alone and try to only practice when others are present
    D. practice more when others are present so that others' presence will not distract her during a performance
    E.  practice in the evenings at about the same time as her recital is scheduled
    A.practice alone until she perfects her performance, then perform before a group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Recent research results indicate that the presence of an audience facilitates or hinders performance _____.
    A. because of cognitive factors
    B. because of the distraction provided by others
    C. because of social factors
    D. because of deindividuation processes
    E. because of the inability to simultaneously pay attention to task performance and other individuals
    A. because of cognitive factors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. One step that can be taken to reduce social loafing is _____.
    A. to ensure that each member of the group is aware that other group members can make the same contribution that they do 
    B. to minimize the apparent value of a task 
    C. to ensure that the group's effort, but not individual contributions, is recognized and rewarded
    D. to minimize group members' commitment to the task
    E. to ensure that the contribution made by each group member is easily identifiable 
    E. to ensure that the contribution made by each group member is easily identifiable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. _____ is characterized by reduced self-awareness and social identity.
    A. distraction
    B. groupthink
    C. cooperation
    D. cohesiveness
    E. deindividuation
    E. deindividuation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. The three factors that are most important in generating cooperation include _____.
    A. altruism, communication, and a cooperative orientation 
    B. reciprocity, a competitive orientation, and communication 
    C. a status quo bias, a cooperative orientation, and altruism
    D. reciprocity, communication, and personal orientations toward cooperation 
    E. altruism, an individualistic orientation, and reciprocity
    D. reciprocity, communication, and personal orientations toward cooperation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. One factor involved in escalating conflicts is _____.
    A. early attempts at logrolling 
    B.errors concerning the causes behind others' behavior 
    C. a Type B behavioral pattern
    D. unwillingness to make concessions on some key points 
    E.early adoption of the "big-lie" technique 
    B.errors concerning the causes behind others' behavior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Our tendency to perceive groups in terms of "us" versus "them" can be countered by _____.
    a. the expression of authentic dissent  combined group decision making  
    b.the use of social decision schemes  
    c. the application of distributive justice ethics  
    d.the introduction of superordinate goals
    • d.the introduction of superordinate goals
    • Superordinate goals are the goals that both sides in a conflict seek and that tie their interests together. Superordinate goals can be used to counter our tendencies to magnify differences between one's own group and other groups.
  34. _____ is concerned with whether the available rewards that group members receive are proportional to each member's contributions to the group; _____ is concerned with whether the procedures used to distribute available rewards among group members are fair.
    A.Distributive justice; procedural justice 
    B.Interpersonal justice; procedural justice  
    C.Interactional justice; procedural justice
    D.Interpersonal justice; interactional justice  
    E.Procedural justice; distributive justice  
    A. Distributive justice; procedural justice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. When rewards for group membership are being distributed, awareness of our status in a group tends to encourage us to particularly focus on _____.
    • a. issues related to procedural justice 
    • b.the magnitude or size of the rewards 
    • c.issues related to the group's cohesiveness 
    • d.issues related to interactional justice 
    • e.issues related to continued cooperation with other group members
  36. Groupthink is more likely to occur in _____.
    a.groups that experience significant amounts of authentic dissent before reaching a conclusion or making a decision b.highly cohesive groups c.highly polarized groups d.groups that use the devil's advocate techniquee. individualistic societies
    • a. authentic dissent  
    • b. the distraction-conflict approach 
    • c. the devil's advocate technique  
    • d. the collective effort model  
    • e. a social decision scheme
  37. One approach to improving group decisions involves assigning one member the task of disagreeing with and criticizing whatever plans or decisions the group is considering. This approach is known as _____.
    a.authentic dissent  
    b.the distraction-conflict approach  
    c.the devil's advocate technique  
    d.the collective effort model  a social decision scheme
    • c. the devil's advocate technique
    • the quality of group decisions involves assigning one member the task of disagreeing with and criticizing whatever decisions the group is considering.

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