Infectious Diseases Viral, Bacterial, Fungal and Protozoan

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Infectious Diseases Viral, Bacterial, Fungal and Protozoan
2013-12-06 19:20:51
Canine Feline Final

Section 1
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  1. Shelter Temperature
    72 F
  2. Shelter Humidity
  3. Shelter Air Exchanges
  4. Shelter Light Cycle
    14 day / 10 night
  5. Shelter Cleaner of Choice
    Sodium hypochlorite 1:30 dilution
  6. 5 Factors in controlling spread of disease
    • 1: vaccination program
    • 2: remove animals with clinical signs
    • 3: test asymptomatic animals to identify carriers
    • 4: Keep young/unvaccinated animals in STRICT isolation
    • 5: Sanitation and ventilation
  7. 3 agent factors in contracting disease
    • 1: Virulence
    • 2: dosage
    • 3: route of inoculation
  8. 5 Environmental Factors in contracting disease (P.A.V.A.S)
    • 1: Population density
    • 2: Accumalation of excrement
    • 3: Ventilation
    • 4: Animal movement in/out of population
    • 5: Sanitation
  9. 5 Host Factors in contracting disease (M.A.C.I.N.)
    • 1: Maternal immunity
    • 2: Age at time of exposure
    • 3: Concurrent illness
    • 4: Immunity anomalies or deficiencies
    • 5: Nutrition
  10. type of disease caused by genetic carriers
    Hereditary disease
  11. type of disease that is inflicted upon fetus during pregnancy and/or at birth
    Congenital disease
  12. type of disease involved with the inability to digest or lack of nutrients
    Deficiency disease
  13. type of disease cause by any physical injury
    Physical trauma disease
  14. type of disease caused by any toxin that interferes with bodily functions
    Poison disease
  15. Paroxysmal cough description:

    It is a symptom of:
    "goose honk", harsh and dry, may be described as a bone caught in the throat, worsens with exercise or collar pulling

    Symptom of CAV-2
  16. Sample K9 Vaccination Schedule
    • 6wks - CPV-2
    • 8-10 wks - DHLPPC and Bb
    • 10-12 wks - DHLPPC and Bb
    • 14-16 wks - DHLPPC and Rabies
    • 20 wks - CPV-2
    • 6 months - CPV-2
    • 1 year - DHLPPC and Bb
  17. DHLPPC
    • Distemper
    • Hepatitis (CAV-2)
    • Leptospirosis
    • Parvovirus
    • Parainfluenza
    • Coronavirus
  18. Bb
    • Bordetella brochiseptica
  19. ODE
    • Old Dog Encephalitis
    • - not infectious
    • - linked w/chronic distemper encephalitis
    • - may occur w/o history of systemic distemper
  20. CVRD
    • Canine Viral Respiratory Disease
    • - lower respiratory disease (below the carina to the lungs)
  21. ICH
    • Infectious Canine Hepatits
    • - infects liver cells
  22. ICH etiology
    Canine Adenovirus Type 1 (CAV-1)
  23. ICH primary symptom
    Corneal Edema "Blue eyes"
  24. ICH primary clinical sign
    Prolonged clotting times
  25. What is the reason for ICH prolonged clotting times?
    the liver is responsible for producing several clotting factors and CAV-1 attacks the liver cells thus reducing the ability for the liver to produce those clotting factors.
  26. ICH primary route of infection
    Urine - at 10 days after infection - virus only found in the kidneys

    can be excreted in urine for 6-9 months
  27. 4 primary etiologies of Tracheal Bronchitis (Kennel Cough)
    • Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • Canine Adenovirus Type 2 (CAV-2)
    • Coronavirus
    • Parainfluenza
    • **1 bacteria, 3 viruses**
  28. CAV-2 target
    Canine Adenovirus type 2 attacks the trachea and bronchi
  29. What is the reason why we vaccinate for CAV-2 and not CAV-1?
    CAV-2 vaccine provides cross-immunizations for CAV-1 and does not produce the severe reaction that the CAV-1 vaccine does.
  30. V.A.A.U  ("vow")
    Vaccine Associated Anterior Uveitis - produces corneal edema.  It is the reaction that happens when a CAV-1 vaccine is given.  Antigen/Antibody reaction inside corneal tissue
  31. CpiV2
    • Canine Parainfluenza Virus
    • - attach epithelium of the respiratory tract
    • - one of the primary causes of "kennel cough"
  32. New name for CpiV2 and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections
    Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB)
  33. New name associated with CAV-2 (and sometimes with CAV-1)
    Infectious Laryngotracheitis
  34. CHV and etiology
    Canine Herpes Virus cause by Reovirus Type 1
  35. CHV routes of infection
    • -newborns in utero
    • -passage through birth canal
    • -contact with infected littermates
    • -oronasal secretion of dam
    • -fomites
  36. How does nasal Bb vaccine provide immunity?
    Produces and IgA response that prevents bacterial attachment in mucus layers of nasal passage, pharynx and trachea
  37. Types of etiologies (8)
    • bacterial
    • fungal
    • virual
    • rickettsial
    • protozoan
    • chlamydial
    • metazoan
    • pleuropneumonia like organisms
  38. TAMU and significance with mycoses
    Texas A&M university has diagnosed all types of mycotic infections.
  39. K9 heart rate
    60-120 bpm
  40. feline heart rate
    110-130 bpm
  41. K9 PCV
  42. Feline PCV
  43. K9 respiratory rate
    10-30 rpm
  44. feline respiratory rate
    20-30 rpm
  45. K9 hemoglobin
    14.5 gm/100ml
  46. feline hemoglobin
    12 gm/100ml
  47. K9 and feline temperature
    100-102 F
  48. K9 and feline gestation
    60 days
  49. K9 WBC count
  50. feline WBC count
  51. K9 estrus cycle
    6 months
  52. feline estrus cycle
    15-21 days
  53. K9 BUN
  54. feline BUN
  55. K9 glucose
  56. feline glucose
  57. K9 and feline coagulation time
    1-5 minutes
  58. Equine coagulation time
    3-15 minutes
  59. Von Willebrand disease
    • clotting factor 8 is missing
    • common in Doberman pinschers (genetic)
  60. MCHC
    Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration - carrying capacity of the blood for hemoglobin
  61. BUN
    Blood Urea Nitrogen - tests kidney function
  62. Creatinine
    other test associated with kidney function
  63. ALT
    Alanine aminotransferase - tests liver function
  64. ALP
    Alkaline phosphatase - tests for liver function
  65.                   of any infectious disease in the natural habitat of its causative agent.
    • Reservoir - cannot shed microorganisms
    • -does not get the disease
    • -can be inanimate like soil (mycotic infection) or water (mosquito)
  66.                      reservoir like in that it can be clinically infected and can shed the microorganisms but may not show signs.
    Carrier - e.g. Panleukopenia - animal sheds virus in nasal discharge, coughing, feces but is not sick
  67. Reservoirs and carrier are distinguished from the                  of infection which can be any vertebrate, invertebrate or inanimate object
  68.                             implies spread of disease following intimate contact with the carrier and/or reservoir
    Contagious Infection
  69.                                         of an infection refers to its ability to spread from infected animal to susceptible host.
  70. Transmissibility between members of the same population  is referred to as                  ?
  71. Transmissibility of succeeding generations through genetic material is referred to as                 ?
    Vertical  (bitch to pups in utero or galactogenic)
  72. This is the most frequent and important means of the spread of disease.
    Direct contact transmission - involves direct physical contact or close proximity btw host and susceptible individual
  73. This involves transfer of infectious disease from carrier to host by animate/inanimate intermediates
    Indirect Transmission
  74. This is the spread of infection dependent upon the ability of resistant microorganisms to travel relatively long distances or to survive in the environment for extended periods until they encounter a host
  75. This is disease spread (most commonly arthropods) that transmits from infected host through its excreta/blood to susceptible individual.
    • Vector Borne
    •  - Biological: vector transmission with change or molting
    •  - Mechanical vector transmission without change or molting
  76. This is transmission resulting when vector transfers the organism to progeny in the ovary or placenta
    Transovarial, transplacental, In Utero
  77. This is the transfer of the etiological agent in/through milk.
    Transmammary / Galactogenic
  78. This is the transmission of the etiological agent from molting stages such as a nymph to another host.
    Transstadial, interstadial transmission
  79. The process of destroying all forms of life by chemical or physical means including heat-resistant spores
  80. Immersion of items in a disinfectant to reduce contamination and kills spores.
    Cold/Liquid Sterilization - Glutaraldehyde for 18 hours
  81. Any cleaning measure intended to prevent disease and promote health - routine cleaning of cages/materials/floors/hands..etc.
  82. Destruction of most of the pathogenic microorganisms especially the active vegetative form but not spores
    • Disinfection (inanimate)
    • Antiseptics (skin)
  83. Benzylkonium chloride
    • Roccal-D - disinfectant
    • Zephrin - antiseptic
  84. Chlorhexadine
  85. Scrub
    Antiseptic and soap
  86. Two reasons why surgery in the past was extremely risky.
    • Lack of analgesics
    • Lack of antiseptics
  87. 1546                  suggested disease is a result of living organisms not God
  88. 1676                      developed a lens for the microscope that was able to visualize bacteria for the first time
  89. 1762                  suggested a specific disease is caused by a specific organism
    von Plenciz
  90. 1892                     discovered viruses
  91. definition of etiology
    a trigger by which normal processes are interrupted
  92. PPLO
    • Pleuropneumonia-like organism
    •  - also called mycoplasms
    •  - smallest free living microorganisms discovered to date
  93. These are the most animal like of the protists and can range in size from just visible to microscopic
    Protozoa - toxoplasmosis, piroplasmosis, coccidiosis
  94. These are non-chlorophyll bearing plants that cannot synthesize their own food and must exist as parasites.
    Fungi - yeasts and molds
  95. These are generally unicellular with a rigid cell wall that defines their shape and in which the composition is the basis for identification
  96. The three shapes of bacteria are:
    • 1) coccus - round
    • 2) bacillus - rod shaped
    • 3) spirillum - spiral shaped
  97. In gram staining which bacteria turn blue
    gram positive - basophilic
  98. In gram staining which bacteria turn red
    gram negative - eosinophilic
  99. spore
    dormant bacteria - very hard to destroy
  100. vegetative
    active form of bacteria
  101. These are obligate intracellular parasites in which all of them must use a arthropod in some stage of its life
  102. These belong to a group that resemble Rickettsiae
  103. These are living cells that posses either DNA or RNA.  They have no enzyme system and do not conform to commonly accepted definition of live forms.
  104. Who discovered DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  105. Internal factors: Classification of Etiological Agents (G.I.A.)
    • Genetic - defect or mutation of genome
    • Immunity - defect of response
    • Aging - natural process of aging
  106. External Factors: Classification of Etiological Agents (P.I.C.E.)
    • Physical - trauma, pressure etc
    • Infections - parasite, bacterial, viruses, fungal
    • Chemical - toxins, poisons, heavy metals
    • Environmental - nutrition, temperature, radiation, hygiene
  107. type of disease involving uni or multicellular organisms
    Metazoan disease
  108. Conditions conducive to fleas outbreaks
    • Humidity 70%
    • Temperature - 60-80 F
  109. type of vaccination that gives the animal the etiology and allows the animal to develop antibodies.
  110. type of vaccination that is made of prepared antibodies that immediately begin to seek out and destroy bacteria
  111. 3 main routes of Vaccines
    • Parenteral
    • Intranasal
    • Oral
  112. Two main purposes of vaccination
    • 1. protect the individual from disease
    • 2. maintain a large enough number of immune individuals so that disease is not readily spread (herd/litter immunity)
  113. Sir Alfred Jenner
    • worked with Louis Pasteur
    • more known for Anthrax and Swine Cholera (first vaccines)
  114. How has the vaccinations of animals improved human health?
    • 1. improved the efficiency of food animal production
    • 2. prevention of the spread of zoonotic diseases
  115. 4 etiologies that vaccines can be made from
    • viruses
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • rickettsiae
  116. Bacterin
    vaccine made from a bacteria
  117. Why is it easier to induce protection with a virus vaccine than with a bacterin?
    Bacterins made from bacteria run the risk of a reaction due to toxins in the bacteria wall
  118. 3 types of vaccines
    • Killed/inactivated
    • Modified-live/attenuated
    • Recombinant
  119. Killed/Inactivated Vaccines
    • -may be used with pregnant animals with caution
    • -safe and stable
    • -infective agent cannot reproduce
    • -must be giving frequently
  120. Modified-Live/Attenuated Vaccines
    • -provide rapid and complete protection
    • -able to override maternal antibodies
    • -indicated to control outbreaks
    • -usually contain an adjuvant
  121. Recombinant Vaccines
    • -superior antibody production
    • -stimulates humoral and cell-mediated immunity
    • -no virulence
    • -no adjuvant needed
  122. Preferred terminology for vaccines
    inactivated/attenuated are preferred to killed/modified live because viruses to not completely fit the definition of being a living organism
  123. This is the specific part of an infective agent that the immune system recognizes.
  124. This is the specific part of the antigen that binds to the antibody.
  125. Broad protection Response
    immune system engenders many different antibodies to one disease causing agent because it responds to many epitopes of a given vaccine
  126. Trimmune
    • First FDA approved 3 year vaccine
    •  - killed
    •  - Ft. Dogde
  127. Adjuvant
    • -usually a metal
    • -added to modified live vaccines to enhance immune response by causing inflammatory reaction
    • -although aluminum was found to be the best, it caused malignant sarcomas in cats
  128. How many cats were actually affected by vaccine induced sarcomas?
  129. Cultured cells are usually made from the species being vaccinated.  Name 4 examples
    • feline
    • canine
    • murine
    • caprine
  130. Other ingredients in vaccines
    • -remnants of cells used to culture the vaccine
    • -buffers to reduce acidity
    • -pH indicators
    • -preservatives
    • -adjuvants
  131. Humoral Immunity
    • B-lymphocytes from bone marrow/spleen/lymph notes contact an antigen and proliferate into clones
    • Some of these clones remain behind as "memory" cells to recognize antigen again
    • Others become plasma cells that produce the antibodies
  132. Antibodies produced by plasma cells (Im.a.g.e.)
    Immunoglobulins M, A, G, E (IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE)
  133. Cell Mediated Immunity
    T-Lymphocytes go to the thymus an are coded to recognize self vs antigen.  They both directly attack the antigen as well as stimulate humoral immunity to begin antibody production.  These will last the life of the animal
  134. What produces inflammatory mediators which regulate chronic inflammation?
  135. Haptan
    half of an antigen
  136. D/M vaccine
    • Measles was added to the distemper vaccine to lower the maternal antibodies to distemper so it could provide an immune response
    • - dev by Norden
    • - taken off marked due to causing blindness
  137. Reasons for vaccine Failures (H.A.M.S.)
    • Handling and administration errors (incorrect route, improper mixing and temp)
    • Animals response to vaccine (genetic def, concurrent illnesses)
    • Maternal antibody interference
    • Strain in vaccine is too different from one needed for protection
  138. Vaccine Complicatons
    • Pain/Lethargy
    • Anaphylaxis / angioneurotic edema - mainly happens with bacterin - give antihistamine not steroid (will suppress immune system and give disease vaccinating for)
    • Injection site reactions
  139. Injection Site reactions (G.U.V.S.)
    • Granulomas - begnin
    • Uveitis - with CAV-1 vaccines
    • Vasculitis - infection in blood vessels cause when vaccine is injected by mistake into small vessels
    • Sarcomas - adjuvant based vaccines implicated: Rabies and FeLV
  140. Sample Feline Vaccine Schedule
    • 8-10wks - FVRCP, FeLV (FIP opt)
    • 12wks - FVRCP, Rabies
    • 6 months - FeLV (FIP opt)
    • 1 year - FVRCP, Rabies
  141. Bucellosis etiology
    Brucella canis
  142. Cat scratch disease etiologies
    • Bartonella henselae **
    • Bartonella vinsonii **
    • Bartonella clarridgeiae
    • Bartonella koehlerae
  143. Chaga's Disease etiology
    Trypanosoma cruzi - sleeping sickness
  144. Conjunctivitis etiology
    Chlamydia psittaci- pink eye
  145. Echinococcosis etiologies
    • Echinococcus granulosus
    • Echinococcus multiocularis
  146. Cutaneous Larval Migrans etiologies
    • Anclyostoma braziliense
    • Anclyostoma caninum
  147. Visceral Larval Migrans etiology
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxocara cati
  148. Leshmaniasis etiology
    Leshmania donovani
  149. Leptospirosis etiologies
    • Leptospira interrogans**
    • Leptospira canicola
    • Leptospira icterohemorrhagica
    • Leptospira harjo
  150. Bubonic plague etiology
    Yersina pestis
  151. Bubonic definition
    enlarged submandibular lymph nodes
  152. Bubonic plague transmission
    flea eats Y. pestis > obstipation > vomits on rat/human > host/flea die
  153. Rabies etiology
    Lyssiavirus or Rhabdovirus
  154. Ringworm etiology
    Microsporum canis

  155. Scabies etiologies
    • Sarcoptes scabiei - K9
    • Notoedres cati - feline

    Note: any member of the families Sarcoptedae or Psoroptedae are considered scabies
  156. Sporotrichosis etiology
    Sporothrix schenkii
  157. Toxoplasmosis etiology
    Toxoplasma gondii

    note: cat is the only definitive host
  158. Tularemia etiology
    Francisella tularensis

    note: used by terrorists
  159. Common wound infection etiologies
    • Pasteurella multocida ** (also used by terrorists)
    • Pasteurella haemolytica **

    • Proteus spp.
    • Pseudomonas spp.
    • note: all gram negative
  160. Top 10 Breeds/Human bites in Harris County
    Pit Bull Terrier – 21.99%•Labrador Retriever – 13.87%%•German Shepherd – 8.5%•Chihuahua – 5.3%•Chow Chow – 4.01%•Rottweiler – 3.41%•Boxer – 3.28%•Dachshund – 2.93%•Belgian Malinois – 2.33%•Australian Cattle Dog – 2.23
  161. Viral Zoonotic diseases
    Encephalitis, Infectious Hepatitis, Rabies
  162. Bacterial Zoonotic Diseases
    Anthrax, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Tuberculosis, Tularemia
  163. Fungal Zoonotic diseases
    • External/Topical
    •   - Ringworm/Dermatophycosis
    • Systemic
    •   - Blastomycosis, Histomycosis, Cryptococcosis
  164. Protozoan Zoonotic diseases
    • Entameobiosis, Ameobiasis, Babesiosis, Toxoplasmosis
    • Giardiasis - Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis
  165. Bacterial Enteric Zoonotic Diseases
    • Campylobacter spp - ascending paralysis
    • Salmonella spp  - both common in cat gut flora - Diarrhea and polyarthritis
  166. Anthrax etiology
    Bacillus anthracis
  167. The number of deaths related to food borne infections in humans
  168. Morbidity of food borne illnesses in humans
    1.3 million
  169. This is relationship of antibodies to antigen in ratio terms.
  170. This refers to the patient that is parasitized by an etiological agent
  171. This is the relationship of various factors which determine that frequency and distribution of infectious diseases.
  172. TVMDL
    Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory
  173. This refers to the natural host for the disease
  174. This refers to the development of morbid condition of a disease in question
  175. CDC
    • Center for Disease Control
    •   - Atlanta, GA - human
    •   - Ames, IA - vet
  176. This refers to a living organism that lives at the expense of the host
  177. This is a sign of a disease that can be visualized with the naked eye
  178. This is a sign of a disease that can be deduced through labwork.
    Clinical Sign
  179. This refers to an inanimate object that can maintain the presence of an etiology so as to be passed along to another animal or person.
  180. The refers to the prevention of a disease
  181. This is a list of all diseases base on the symptoms
    Differential diagnosis
  182. This is the most likely disease based on current history recently seen.
    Tentative Diagnosis
  183. This is the absolute identification of the etiology based on a clinical sign or microscopic isolation
    Definitive Diagnosis
  184. This refers to a disease that from acquisition of the etiology causes death within 24 hours.  Attacks and kills instantly.
    Peracute disease
  185. This refers to a disease that is severe and possibly deadly but within a longer time frame e.g. 48-72 hours
    Acute disease
  186. This is a disease that has only mild symptoms (pyrexia, anorexia) that does not prevent normal behavior
    Sub-acute disease
  187. This type of disease has no noted symptoms with maybe the occasional vomiting or diarrhea but harbors the disease.  Associated with carrier status
    Sub-clinical disease
  188. This refers to a disease of animals that may be transmitted to man and from man to animal under natural conditions.
  189. This refers to an attack on many animals by an etiological agent in any region at the same time
  190. This refers to the presence of an etiological agent in any animal in a community at all times but only occurring in a small number of cases.
  191. Non-specific Immunity
    • 1) species resistance
    • 2) chemical and mechanical barriers
    • 3) inflammatory response
    • 4) interferon (prevents virus replication)
    • 5) compliment (enzymes punch holes in membranes and cause lysis)
  192. Specific Immunity
    • Humoral Immunity
    • Cell-mediated immunity