Canine Diseases

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  1. Canine Brucellosis etiologies
    **Brucella canis - gram negative coccobacillus

    other B. ovis, B. abortis, B. suis, B. melitensis
  2. B. canis transmission
    infected semen, vaginal discharge, aborted fetal tissue.

    Oronasal transmission is most common by contact with aborted materials due to the concentration of bacteria (1M/mL)
  3. B. canis shedding
    • - can occur up to 6wks after abortion
    • - milk infection is probable but low numbers means little importance in bitch, not so in cattle
  4. Brucella Pathogenesis
    • persist for years in monocytes
    • bacteremia begins 1-4 wks post infection
    • can spontaneously recover dependent on cell-mediated immunity
  5. Tissues that harbor Brucella canis
    • Uterus/pregnancy
    • Testicles
    • Lymphatics
    •       -lymph nodes, monocytes and lymphocyte
    •       -spleen
    •       -thymus and tonsils
  6. Treatment of Brucellosis
    • Only cure is to castrate
    • Limited antimicrobial treatments with minocycline and dihydrostrepomycin combined
  7. Most common route of infection for humans
    vaccine that is available (accidental injection)
  8. RSAT
    Rapid Slide Agglutinaton Test - Brucellosis diagnosis - in house screening test
  9. TAT
    Tube Agglutination Test - Brucellosis diagnosis: provides titer confirmation of positive RSAT. 1:200 are weak +
  10. AGID
    Agar Gel Immunodiffusion - Brucellosis diagnosis: sensitive, specific test for B. canis antigen 

    note: this is the way the coggins test for EIA is performed
  11. Primary symptoms of Brucellosis
    • Dog - infertility orchitis and scrotal swelling, epididymitis
    • Bitch - abortion (85% of 1st pregnancies)
  12. What do you think when you see splotches of hair on the body of an animal
  13. What do you think when a dystocia or abortion happens?
  14. What do you think when there is a change in the voice or the attitude of any animal?
  15. What does it mean when a bacteria is refractory?
    It is resistant to antibiotics
  16. At what time during gestation will the abortion happen in a bitch with Brucellosis?
    Around the 45-59th day.
  17. What is Brucellosis called in human beings?
    Undulant Fever
  18. Incubation period for Brucellosis in humans
    • estimated to be 5 days to 3 months
    • typically apparent within 2 weeks
  19. Undulant pattern of symptoms in humans
    most broad spectrum symptoms persist for about 2 to 4 weeks.  Most common is an intermittent fever.  Can be so severe that a person is bedridden for weeks.
  20. Brucellosis in other animals
    • Brucella abortis - bovine (cattle, bison, water buffalo) elk, camel, feral procine
    • Brucella melitensis = ovine, caprine, desert murine
    • Brucella ovis - sheep
    • Brucella neotomae - rodents
    • Brucella suis - porcine
  21. Fistulus Withers
    • Equines can contract any of the Brucella spp.  Manifest as and is limited to draining tracts in the withers that won't heal
    • Tx with Nitrofurazone
  22. The most common clinical sign
  23. Lyme Disease etiology
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  24. What is and what type of virus is CPV?
    Canine Parvovirus is a non-enveloped DNA virus
  25. What disease is CPV thought to be a mutation of?
    Feline Panleukopenia
  26. CPV incubation time
    • Type 2: 7-14 days
    • Type 2a & b: 4-6 days

    Note: death can occur as little as 2 days due to secondary conditions: DIC or bacterial infection
  27. What is DIC and what does it cause?
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is caused the the clumping of platelets in certain region of the body thus:
    • 1) causes blockage of vessels due to clots
    • 2) uneven distribution of platelets can cause excessive bleeding in areas devoid.
  28. Primary transmission route of CPV
  29. Primary clinical sign and symptom of CPV
    • clinical sign - marked leukopenia
    • symptom - profuse bloody diarrhea with a distinct odor
  30. 2 Vaccines effective against CPV-2c
    • 1) Galaxy vaccines (CPV-2b)
    • 2) Continuum (CPV strain 154)
  31. In what year was the first strain (CPV-1) of canine parvovirus first isolated
  32. In what year was CPV-2 discovered?
  33. In what year was CPV2a discovered?
  34. In what year was CPV2b discovered?
  35. In what year was CPV2c discovered and what country?
    1996 - German military dogs
  36. What was the other name for CPV-1?
    Minute Virus
  37. In what year was CPV2c discovered in the US?
  38. What is special about CPV2c?
    It infects both cats and dogs.
  39. Distribution of CPV2c internatinally
    N.A. (US 18 states), S.A., Asia, Europe and now Australia
  40. Mustelidae - CDV susceptible
    ferret, marten, badger, otter, mink, weasel, wolverine, mink
  41. Candidae - CDV susceptible
    wolf, racoon dog, coyote, dingo, fox
  42. Procyonidae - CDV susceptible
    Kinkajou, Raccoon, Coatlmundi
  43. Ursidae - CDV susceptible
  44. Viverridae - CDV susceptible
    binturong, fossa, civet, linsand
  45. Herpestidae - CDV susceptible
    meerkat, mongoose
  46. Felidae - CDV susceptible
    lion, cheetah, margay, ocelot, jaguar
  47. CPV vaccination recommendations by breed size
    • Large breed: start at 4wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
    • Medium breed: start at 5 wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
    • Small breed: start at 6 wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
  48. CPV shedding period
    under 4-5 days following onset
Card Set:
Canine Diseases
2013-12-07 00:19:20
Canine Feline Final

canine diseases
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