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Canine Brucellosis etiologies
**Brucella canis - gram negative coccobacillus
other B. ovis, B. abortis, B. suis, B. melitensis
B. canis transmission
infected semen, vaginal discharge, aborted fetal tissue.
Oronasal transmission is most common by contact with aborted materials due to the concentration of bacteria (1M/mL)
B. canis shedding
- - can occur up to 6wks after abortion
- - milk infection is probable but low numbers means little importance in bitch, not so in cattle
- persist for years in monocytes
- bacteremia begins 1-4 wks post infection
- can spontaneously recover dependent on cell-mediated immunity
Tissues that harbor Brucella canis
- -lymph nodes, monocytes and lymphocyte
- -thymus and tonsils
Treatment of Brucellosis
- Only cure is to castrate
- Limited antimicrobial treatments with minocycline and dihydrostrepomycin combined
Most common route of infection for humans
vaccine that is available (accidental injection)
Rapid Slide Agglutinaton Test - Brucellosis diagnosis - in house screening test
Tube Agglutination Test - Brucellosis diagnosis: provides titer confirmation of positive RSAT. 1:200 are weak +
Agar Gel Immunodiffusion - Brucellosis diagnosis: sensitive, specific test for B. canis antigen
note: this is the way the coggins test for EIA is performed
Primary symptoms of Brucellosis
- Dog - infertility orchitis and scrotal swelling, epididymitis
- Bitch - abortion (85% of 1st pregnancies)
What do you think when you see splotches of hair on the body of an animal
What do you think when a dystocia or abortion happens?
What do you think when there is a change in the voice or the attitude of any animal?
What does it mean when a bacteria is refractory?
It is resistant to antibiotics
At what time during gestation will the abortion happen in a bitch with Brucellosis?
Around the 45-59th day.
What is Brucellosis called in human beings?
Incubation period for Brucellosis in humans
- estimated to be 5 days to 3 months
- typically apparent within 2 weeks
Undulant pattern of symptoms in humans
most broad spectrum symptoms persist for about 2 to 4 weeks. Most common is an intermittent fever. Can be so severe that a person is bedridden for weeks.
Brucellosis in other animals
- Brucella abortis - bovine (cattle, bison, water buffalo) elk, camel, feral procine
- Brucella melitensis = ovine, caprine, desert murine
- Brucella ovis - sheep
- Brucella neotomae - rodents
- Brucella suis - porcine
- Equines can contract any of the Brucella spp. Manifest as and is limited to draining tracts in the withers that won't heal
- Tx with Nitrofurazone
The most common clinical sign
Lyme Disease etiology
What is and what type of virus is CPV?
Canine Parvovirus is a non-enveloped DNA virus
What disease is CPV thought to be a mutation of?
CPV incubation time
- Type 2: 7-14 days
- Type 2a & b: 4-6 days
Note: death can occur as little as 2 days due to secondary conditions: DIC or bacterial infection
What is DIC and what does it cause?
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is caused the the clumping of platelets in certain region of the body thus:
- 1) causes blockage of vessels due to clots
- 2) uneven distribution of platelets can cause excessive bleeding in areas devoid.
Primary transmission route of CPV
Primary clinical sign and symptom of CPV
- clinical sign - marked leukopenia
- symptom - profuse bloody diarrhea with a distinct odor
2 Vaccines effective against CPV-2c
- 1) Galaxy vaccines (CPV-2b)
- 2) Continuum (CPV strain 154)
In what year was the first strain (CPV-1) of canine parvovirus first isolated
In what year was CPV-2 discovered?
In what year was CPV2a discovered?
In what year was CPV2b discovered?
In what year was CPV2c discovered and what country?
1996 - German military dogs
What was the other name for CPV-1?
In what year was CPV2c discovered in the US?
What is special about CPV2c?
It infects both cats and dogs.
Distribution of CPV2c internatinally
N.A. (US 18 states), S.A., Asia, Europe and now Australia
Mustelidae - CDV susceptible
ferret, marten, badger, otter, mink, weasel, wolverine, mink
Candidae - CDV susceptible
wolf, racoon dog, coyote, dingo, fox
Procyonidae - CDV susceptible
Kinkajou, Raccoon, Coatlmundi
Ursidae - CDV susceptible
Viverridae - CDV susceptible
binturong, fossa, civet, linsand
Herpestidae - CDV susceptible
Felidae - CDV susceptible
lion, cheetah, margay, ocelot, jaguar
CPV vaccination recommendations by breed size
- Large breed: start at 4wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
- Medium breed: start at 5 wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
- Small breed: start at 6 wks, then q2-3wks until 16-20 wks
CPV shedding period
under 4-5 days following onset