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What are the factors creating the context at the turn of of the 20th century on which marijuana/cocaine/heroin could be widely enough distributed/used to become problematic?
1. The introduction of organic chemistry which meant drugs hard to use (because they had to be used in plant form) could now be made into easy to consume and manufactured, liquids and powders.
2. The invention of the hypodermic syringe provided a product for easy transport and consumption.
3. The rise of the pharmaceutical industry provided for mass distribution of the new easy-to-consume products and a wider proportion of the population could have access to them.
4. The FDA did not exist during this time meaning drugs could be sold without information about the affects. Thus, the lack of federal regulation of drugs allowed for these substances to be manufactured and distributed without knowing the what was in them or what they could do to you.
What are the factors affecting the regulation and criminalization of heroin?
1. Chinese immigrants became associated with drugs and because this group was an "out group" member, regulating heroin became a way to socially control this population.
2. The U.S needed to smooth over relations with China for economic reasons. During this time China was trying to reduce opium production within China so they asked the US to try and reduce need for supply by regulating heroin.
3. In 1919 when the Harrison Act was reinterpreted by the supreme court, so that physicians could only prescribe heroin for medical reasons and not just for maintaining the addiction. As a results users had to rely on illegal market.
4. The perception of the status of the heroin user changed from housewife/respectable types into out group population (immigrants)
What are the factors affecting the regulation and criminalization of cocaine?
1. Increased knowledge about dependency and overdosing associated with cocaine.
2. Harrison Act
3. Creation of fear about the power of cocaine to make people crazy.
What are the factors affecting the regulation and criminalization of marijuana?
1. Context of intolerance of temperance movement and prohibition and the criminalization of heroin/cocaine that preceded the criminalization.
2. During the depression Mexican immigrants became competition to poor whites who needed work. Crim. used as a form of social control over Mexican immigrants to take them out of competition.
3. Federal Bureau of Narcotics create the idea of the marijuana user as a "monster" which made them look powerful by fighting them and controlling the "monster".
What are psychoactive drugs?
any drugs that alter mood, perception, or behavior.
Examples of psychoactive drugs?
alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin.
What is a physiological addiction?
when a drug alters brain chemistry is a way that creates a physical dependence on the drug.
What are withdrawal symptoms?
When an addict has a physiological addiction and the addict stops taking the drug the body experiences physical side effects until the body figures out it needs to make that chemical on its own.
What are examples of withdrawal symptoms?
- minor: headaches, mild depression
- severe: nausea, vomiting, sweating, and hallucinations.
What is a psychological addiction?
caused by the psychological sensation caused by the drug, which may include feelings of euphoria, relaxation, and hyper-alertness.
What is the difference between physiological addiction and psychological addiction?
Unlike physiological addiction, a psychological addiction, the body does not "need" the drug they addict just wants to recreate the effects that give them pleasure.
Name the legal drugs, prescription drugs and illegal drugs
legal: Alcohol, nicotine
prescription drugs: Amphetamines, barbituates, anti-depressants
Illegal drugs: Marijuana, cocaine, heroin.
What are the effects of alcohol?
"depressant", slows down signals to nervous system.
- 1. reduces functioning & anxiety
- 2. overdose (can stop breathing function)
What are the addictions of alcohol?
highly physical and psychologically addictiong
What are the use patterns of alcohol?
Half population uses moderately, 1/3 abstain, 1/10 consume over 1/2 of alcohol consumed.
High loyalty rate: 6 out of 10 who use once, use again.
What are the big three (drugs)?
What are the (2) negative consequences of alcohol?
- Responsible for 1/3 of all auto fatalities
- Chronic medical effects (cirrhosis of liver)
What are the effects of nicotine?
"stimulant" - speeds up signals going to the brain.
What are the addictions of nicotine?
More people addicted to cigarettes than all other psychoactives combined.
70% of those who use are physically addicted
Less likely to moderate use
What fraction of the population smoke?
Negative consequences of nicotine?
Produces more death and illness from chronic long term use that all others combined.
20% of deaths in the U.S
Most drug abuse in the U.S. is in reality....
What are the effects of marijuana?
Relaxation, peacefulness, mild euphoria, lethargy.
Does not produce a ruse- effects are short lived (2-4 hours)
Very hard to OD!!
What is the addiction of marijuana?
This is debated.
What are the use patterns of marijuana?
Most widely used illegal drug.
1/3 of population over 12 admit to use at least once.
"Gateway drug" (some say it leads to other harder illegal drug use)
Negative consequences of marijuana?
Short term memory loss
Adversely effects reproduction for both men and woman
Increase cancer risk (1-3 J's = 5-15 cigarettes) and breathing problems.
What are the medical uses for marijuana?
- Helps asthma
- Reduces vomiting and nausea (chemo/AIDs)
- Reduces intraocular pressure in the eye
- Reduces one of the causes of glaucoma
What are the effects of cocaine?
- Immediate arousal.
What are the injection mechanisms of cocaine?
- Smoking(most intense/efficient)
- Injection (fast/intense)
- Sniffing (least efficient)
What is the addiction to cocaine?
Can produce both phy. and psy. but psychological is more common.
Moderate use is more frequent.
"crack" is the most psy. addicting form.
What is the pattern use of cocaine?
2% of Americans over 12 admit use
What are the effects of heroin?
- pain reliever
- intense rush if injected
What is the addiction of heroin?
- Highly physically addictive (70% addicts are)
- Overdose is very easy (10x normal dose)
What is the pattern of use of heroin?
- Least frequently used illegal drug (.1% of pop)
- Increase use recently through snorting/smoking
What are the negative consequences of heroin?
- Overdose - death
- It's highly physiologically addictive
- Expensive (users have no $)